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To permit rapid optical control of brain activity, we have engineered multiple lines of transgenic mice that express the light-activated cation channel Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in subsets of neurons. Illumination of ChR2-positive neurons in brain slices produced photocurrents that generated action potentials within milliseconds and with precisely timed(More)
Voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels display a wide variety of conductances and gating properties in vivo. This diversity can be attributed not only to the presence of many K(+)-channel gene products, but also to the possibility that different K(+)-channel subunits co-assemble to form heteromultimeric channels in vivo. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes or(More)
Endotoxin, a constituent of Gram-negative bacteria, stimulates macrophages to release large quantities of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-1 (IL-1), which can precipitate tissue injury and lethal shock (endotoxemia). Antagonists of TNF and IL-1 have shown limited efficacy in clinical trials, possibly because these cytokines are early mediators in(More)
Multiple voltage-gated potassium (K) channel gene products are likely to be involved in regulating neuronal excitability of any single neuron in the mammalian brain. Here we show that two closely related voltage-gated K channel proteins, mKv1.1 and mKv1.2, are present in multiple subcellular locations including cell somata, juxta-paranodal regions of(More)
In response to DNA damage, cells activate checkpoint pathways that prevent cell cycle progression. In fission yeast and mammals, mitotic arrest in response to DNA damage requires inhibitory Cdk phosphorylation regulated by Chk1. This study indicates that Chk1 is required for function of the DNA damage checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae but acts through(More)
Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses(More)
math5 is a murine orthologue of atonal, a bHLH proneural gene essential for the formation of photoreceptors and chordotonal organs in Drosophila. The expression of math5 coincides with the onset of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation. Targeted deletion of math5 blocks the initial differentiation of 80% of RGCs and results in an increase in(More)
Many computational models of normal vernier acuity make predictions based on the just-noticeable contrast difference. Recently, Hu, Klein and Carney [(1993) Vision Research, 33, 1241-1258] compared vernier acuity and contrast discrimination (jnd) in normal foveal viewing using cosine gratings. In the jnd stimulus the test grating was added in-phase to the(More)
GABA receptors (GABA(A)) are the major sites of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain and can be assembled from five subunit classes: alpha, beta, gamma, delta, and epsilon. Receptor function can be regulated by direct phosphorylation of beta and gamma2 subunits, but how kinases are targeted to GABA(A) receptors is unknown. Here we show that protein kinase(More)
The focus of this study is to investigate the regulatory role of K(+) influx in Arabidopsis pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Using agar-containing media, in vitro methods for Arabidopsis pollen germination have been successfully established for the first time. The pollen germination percentage was nearly 75% and the average pollen tube length(More)