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The primary metric for gauging progress in the various semiconductor integrated circuit technologies is the spacing, or pitch, between the most closely spaced wires within a dynamic random access memory (DRAM) circuit. Modern DRAM circuits have 140 nm pitch wires and a memory cell size of 0.0408 mum(2). Improving integrated circuit technology will require(More)
Spin currents can apply useful torques in spintronic devices. The spin Hall effect has been proposed as a source of spin current, but its modest strength has limited its usefulness. We report a giant spin Hall effect (SHE) in β-tantalum that generates spin currents intense enough to induce efficient spin-torque switching of ferromagnets at room temperature.(More)
The advent of supramolecular chemistry [1] has provided chemists with the wherewithal to construct molecule-level machines [2, 3] in an efficient manner using the protocol of template-direction. Synthetically accessible, linear motor molecules come in the guise of bistable [2]rotaxanes in which the ring component can be induced [5] to move relative to the(More)
An outbreak of enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection occurred in Taiwan in 1998. The clinical spectrums and laboratory findings for 97 patients with virus culture-proven EV71 infections were analyzed. Eighty-seven percent of the patients were younger than age 5 years. Hand-foot-and-mouth syndrome occurred in 79% of the children and central nervous system (CNS)(More)
Microreactor technology has shown potential for optimizing synthetic efficiency, particularly in preparing sensitive compounds. We achieved the synthesis of an [(18)F]fluoride-radiolabeled molecular imaging probe, 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG), in an integrated microfluidic device. Five sequential processes-[18F]fluoride concentration, water(More)
Two switchable, palindromically constituted bistable [3]rotaxanes have been designed and synthesized with a pair of mechanically mobile rings encircling a single dumbbell. These designs are reminiscent of a "molecular muscle" for the purposes of amplifying and harnessing molecular mechanical motions. The location of the two cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene)(More)
Oncogenic kinase activity and the resulting aberrant growth and survival signaling are a common driving force of cancer. Accordingly, many successful molecularly targeted anticancer therapeutics are directed at inhibiting kinase activity. To assess kinase activity in minute patient samples, we have developed an immunocapture-based in vitro kinase assay on(More)
The clinical practice of oncology is being transformed by molecular diagnostics that will enable predictive and personalized medicine. Current technologies for quantitation of the cancer proteome are either qualitative (e.g., immunohistochemistry) or require large sample sizes (e.g., flow cytometry). Here, we report a microfluidic platform-microfluidic(More)
We have successfully designed and fabricated an integrated microfluidic platform, the hESC-microChip, which is capable of reproducible and quantitative culture and analysis of individual hESC colonies in a semi-automated fashion. In this device, a serpentine microchannel allows pre-screening of dissociated hESC clusters, and six individually addressable(More)
Nanomaterials have been increasingly employed as drug(s)-incorporated vectors for drug delivery due to their potential of maximizing therapeutic efficacy while minimizing systemic side effects. However, there have been two main challenges for these vectors: (i) the existing synthetic approaches are cumbersome and incapable of achieving precise control of(More)