H W Ludvigson

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Rats running in a runway emit discriminable odors when encountering reward (R) or nonreward (N) goal events, and subsequent rats use these odors as discriminative stimuli to alter their approach speeds. In the present studies, a third goal event, aversively conditioned denatonium saccharide (A), was introduced. In Experiment 1, rats evidently emitted an(More)
To test the hypothesis that rats (Rattus norvegicus) emit airborne, differential odors in response to reward and nonreward, donor rats received random sequences of rewarded and nonrewarded placements in small compartments and an airstream transported odors from these compartments to test rats in a separate chamber. When donors remained in the compartments(More)
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