H. W. Ludvigson

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Rats running in a runway emit discriminable odors when encountering reward (R) or nonreward (N) goal events, and subsequent rats use these odors as discriminative stimuli to alter their approach speeds. In the present studies, a third goal event, aversively conditioned denatonium saccharide (A), was introduced. In Experiment 1, rats evidently emitted an(More)
The hypothesis that, after receiving reward and nonreward, rats excrete differential odors perceptible to other rats was tested by making the correct turn in a T-maze contingent on discrimination of any such odors. Clear evidence for an "odor of nonreward or frustration" was obtained, and there was the suggestion of a transistory odor after early reward(More)