H. W. Borchers

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A telemetric micro-transmitting system has been developed for extracellular single unit recording, electrical brain stimulation and marking of the recording and stimulation site in small freely moving animals. The action potentials are transmitted by using frequency modulation for distances up to 10 m. Electrical brain stimulation through the recording(More)
Toads (Bufo bufo) are able to distinguish small stripes with axis orientation in the direction of motion (worm-like stripes) from those with axis orientation perpendicular to the direction of motion (anti-worm-like stripes). The configurational discrimination ability of the toad is, thus far investigated, largely invariant for (1) movement direction in the(More)
We evaluated the accuracy of realtime echocardiography studies conducted via telemedicine (at 384 kbit/s) and prerecorded video studies, by comparing the results with subsequent in-person echocardiography examination performed at follow-up. Between January 2002 and December 2004, there were 769 paediatric echo studies of patients aged one day to 19 years by(More)
Common toads are able to distinguish prey objects from predators and behaviorally irrelevant stimuli by their shape and direction of motion. Using computer programs for correlation analysis, the prey-catching activity in response to different moving configurational stimuli was compared with the activity of neurons recorded at different levels of the visual(More)
Extracellular recordings were made of visual unit activity, sustained potential shifts (SPSs), and electroencephalographic activity (EEGs) from the optic tectum and of EEGs from the telencephalon of immobilized toads (Bufo bufo). Moving visual stimuli were presented, and the bioelectric responses were monitored both before and after ligature of the(More)
In the European toad Bufo bufo (L.) activity from single neurons in the midbrain (tectum opticum, sub-tectum and tori semicirculari) could be elicited by visual, tactile, acoustic or vibratory stimulation (Fig. 3). Furthermore bi- and trimodal units were found. By means of single cell recording experiments in demobilized animals the present paper gives(More)
Cranially mounted differential preamplifiers allowed visual unit activity, EEGs and sustained potential shifts to be monitored from the tectum of freely moving toads (Bufo bufo). Alert behavior was elicited by a moving visual stimulus. Movement of the stimulus in the receptive field of a unit elicited its activity and increased the amplitude of the high(More)
In replication of a recent study, another experiment was carried out to test Freud's assumption that the elements of the dream are particularly close to the repressed unconscious and that free associations starting from them should therefore encounter successively growing resistance. 15 female subjects were asked to associate to parts of their own dreams(More)