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The lack of a standardized, statistically reliable method for in vitro determinations of the minimal lethal or bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics has complicated analyses of isolates of Staphylococcus aureus which appear to be inhibited but not killed by the usual concentrations of cell wall-active antibiotics. We describe a method which identifies(More)
Protegrin peptides are potent antimicrobial agents believed to act against a variety of pathogens by forming nonselective transmembrane pores in the bacterial cell membrane. We have employed 3D Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) calculations to determine the steady-state ion conduction characteristics of such pores at applied voltages in the range of -100 to +100(More)
Rural areas are often considered to have relatively uncontaminated soils; however few studies have measured metals in surface soil from low population areas. Many metals, i.e., arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), have well-documented negative neurological effects, and the developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. Using a Medicaid(More)
The controlled environment vitrification system (CEVS) permits cryofixation of hydrated biological and colloidal dispersions and aggregates from a temperature- and saturation-controlled environment. Otherwise, specimens prepared in an uncontrolled laboratory atmosphere are subject to evaporation and heat transfer, which may introduce artifacts caused by(More)
We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of the naturally occurring protegrin PG-1 peptide and two of its mutants, PC-9 and PC-13 in the presence of a dodecyl-phosphocholine (DPC) micelle. The effects of mutations that disrupt the β-sheet structure in the case of PC-9 and reduce the charge at the C-terminus in the case of PC-13 are analyzed. It is(More)
Urban and rural areas may have different levels of environmental contamination and different potential sources of exposure. Many metals, i.e., arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg), have well-documented negative neurological effects, and the developing fetus and young children are particularly at risk. Using a database of mother and child pairs, three(More)
Determining sources of neurotoxic metals in rural and urban soils is important for mitigating human exposure. Surface soil from four areas with significant clusters of mental retardation and developmental delay (MR/DD) in children, and one control site were analyzed for nine metals and characterized by soil type, climate, ecological region, land use and(More)
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), important effector molecules of the innate immune system, also provide templates for designing novel antibiotics. Protegrin, an especially potent AMP found in porcine leukocytes, was recently shown to form octameric transmembrane pores. We have employed a combination of experiments and models spanning length scales from the(More)
A computer simulation of a section of the interior region of a liquid chromatographic column is performed. The detailed fluid flow profile is provided from a microscopic calculation of low Reynolds number flow through a random packed bed of nonporous spherical particles. The fluid mechanical calculations are performed on a parallel processor computer(More)
Bayesian kriging is a useful tool for estimating spatial distributions of metals; however, estimates are generally only verified statistically. In this study surface soil samples were collected on a uniform grid and analyzed for As, Cr, Pb, and Hg. The data were interpolated at individual locations by Bayesian kriging. Estimates were validated using a(More)