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Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Many cell types express multiple EGFR family members (including EGFR, HER2, HER3, and/or HER4) that interact to form an array of homo- and heterodimers. Differential trafficking of these receptors should strongly affect signaling through(More)
We describe a mechanism for context-dependent cell signaling mediated by autocrine loops with positive feedback. We demonstrate that the composition of the extracellular medium can critically influence the intracellular signaling dynamics induced by extracellular stimuli. Specifically, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system, amplitude and(More)
Elevated expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is known to alter cell signaling and behavioral responses implicated in tumor progression. However, multiple diverse mechanisms may be involved in these overall effects, including signaling by HER2 itself, modulation of signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and(More)
Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics(More)
Autocrine signaling is important in normal tissue physiology as well as pathological conditions. It is difficult to analyze these systems, however, because they are both self-contained and recursive. To understand how parameters such as ligand production and receptor expression influence autocrine activity, we investigated a human epidermal growth(More)
Because mitogenic stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) requires at least an 8--12-h exposure to commit the majority of the cells to divide, a number of complicating processes must be evaluated in an analysis of the relationship between receptor occupancy and the biological response. During this period, the number of cellular EGF receptors changes(More)
Computational models have rarely been used as tools by biologists but, when models provide experimentally testable predictions, they can be extremely useful. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is probably the best-understood receptor system, and computational models have played a significant part in its elucidation. For many years, models have been(More)
A nonimmune library of 10(9) human antibody scFv fragments has been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast, and nanomolar-affinity scFvs routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow-cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 10(10)-fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity, allowing its effectively indefinite expansion.(More)