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Endocytic trafficking plays an important role in the regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. Many cell types express multiple EGFR family members (including EGFR, HER2, HER3, and/or HER4) that interact to form an array of homo- and heterodimers. Differential trafficking of these receptors should strongly affect signaling through(More)
Elevated expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is known to alter cell signaling and behavioral responses implicated in tumor progression. However, multiple diverse mechanisms may be involved in these overall effects, including signaling by HER2 itself, modulation of signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and(More)
We describe a mechanism for context-dependent cell signaling mediated by autocrine loops with positive feedback. We demonstrate that the composition of the extracellular medium can critically influence the intracellular signaling dynamics induced by extracellular stimuli. Specifically, in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system, amplitude and(More)
Deregulation of signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is common in human malignancy progression. One mutant EGFR (variously named DeltaEGFR, de2-7 EGFR, or EGFRvIII), which occurs frequently in human cancers, lacks a portion of the extracellular ligand-binding domain due to genomic deletions that eliminate exons 2 to 7 and confers a(More)
A nonimmune library of 10(9) human antibody scFv fragments has been cloned and expressed on the surface of yeast, and nanomolar-affinity scFvs routinely obtained by magnetic bead screening and flow-cytometric sorting. The yeast library can be amplified 10(10)-fold without measurable loss of clonal diversity, allowing its effectively indefinite expansion.(More)
Although members of the ErbB receptor family are found predominantly at the cell surface, these receptors undergo constant cycling between the plasma membrane and the endosomal compartment. In the absence of an activating ligand, these receptors are slowly internalized (t(1/2) approximately 30 min) but are quickly recycled. The constitutive degradation rate(More)
Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics(More)
Ligands that activate the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are synthesized as membrane-anchored precursors that appear to be proteolytically released by members of the ADAM family of metalloproteases. Because membrane-anchored EGFR ligands are thought to be biologically active, the role of ligand release in the regulation of EGFR signaling is(More)
Because mitogenic stimulation by epidermal growth factor (EGF) requires at least an 8--12-h exposure to commit the majority of the cells to divide, a number of complicating processes must be evaluated in an analysis of the relationship between receptor occupancy and the biological response. During this period, the number of cellular EGF receptors changes(More)