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Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing(More)
We propose a histopathological classification system for hippocampal cell loss in patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsies (MTLE). One hundred and seventy-eight surgically resected specimens were microscopically examined with respect to neuronal cell loss in hippocampal subfields CA1–CA4 and dentate gyrus. Five distinct patterns were(More)
The hippocampal dentate gyrus maintains its capacity to generate new neurons throughout life. In animal models, hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by cognitive tasks, and experimental ablation of neurogenesis disrupts specific modalities of learning and memory. In humans, the impact of neurogenesis on cognition remains unclear. Here, we assessed the(More)
Epilepsy surgery is based upon the minute assessment of brain tissue generating epileptic activity. A number of diagnostic methods are employed in the process of presurgical evaluation, supplying information on various morphological and functional aspects, ultimately integrated into the general result fundamental to the final treatment decision. Magnetic(More)
Cortical processing of passive finger movement was assessed magnetoencephalographically in 12 healthy volunteers and compared with somatosensory evoked magnetic fields (SEF) following tactile stimulation. A new device comprising a clamp-like digit holder facilitated bilateral guidance of the briskly elevated index finger. Both passive movement and tactile(More)
To clarify the anatomical organization of human memory remains a major challenge in clinical neuroscience. Experimental data suggest dentate gyrus granule cells play a major role in memory acquisition, i.e. pattern separation and rapid pattern completion, whereas hippocampal CA1 neurons are implicated in place memory and autobiographical memory retrieval.(More)
The prevalence and incidence of epilepsies in elderly is high. Due to demographic development, the portion of elderly patients with epilepsy will continue to rise over the next decades. In this study, we aimed to investigate seizure semiology, etiology, comorbidity, and therapy in elderly patients dependent on onset of epilepsy and in comparison with(More)
PURPOSE The goal of the study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a broad oxcarbazepine (OXC) dosage range (600, 1200, and 2400 mg/d) as adjunctive therapy for uncontrolled partial seizures and to determine the relationship between trough plasma 10-monohydroxy derivative concentrations and OXC safety and efficacy. METHODS This multinational,(More)
BACKGROUND The hippocampal formation is essentially involved in the formation of conscious memories for facts and events and neurologic diseases affecting the hippocampus associate with severe memory deficits, i.e., temporal lobe epilepsies. METHODS We studied the degree of declarative memory dysfunction in 24 human subjects with unilateral mesial(More)
Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) which represent a composite group of cortical malformations are increasingly recognized as morphological substrate for severe therapy-refractory epilepsy in children and young adults. However, presurgical evaluation remains challenging as not all FCD variants can be reliably detected by high-resolution magnetic resonance(More)