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Simultaneous transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may advance the understanding of neurophysiological mechanisms of TMS. However, it remains unclear if TMS induces fMRI signal changes consistent with the standard hemodynamic response function (HRF) in both local and remote regions. To address this issue,(More)
BACKGROUND Grip and pinch strength are crucially important attributes and standard parameters related to the functional integrity of the hand. It seems significant to investigate normative data for grip and pinch strength of baseball players to evaluate their performance and condition. Nevertheless, few reports have explained the association between grip(More)
Neuroimaging combined with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) is an emerging technique that can examine motor-system functionality through evoked activity. However, because sensory afferents from twitching muscles are widely represented in motor areas the amount of evoked activity directly resulting from TMS remains(More)
BACKGROUND There are few literatures describing the association between glenohumeral internal rotation deficits (GIRD) and valgus laxity of the elbow on the throwing side of high school pitchers with and without a history of elbow symptom. METHODS The passive range of motion of glenohumeral internal and external rotation on bilateral side shoulders was(More)
We prospectively evaluated the effects of a prevention program on the incidence of shoulder and elbow injuries in high school baseball pitchers. Ninety-two pitchers participated in this study and were taught to perform stretching and strength exercises aimed at improving shoulder external rotation strength in the preseason. The pitchers freely chose to(More)
Motor chunking, the grouping of individual movements into larger units, is crucial for sequential motor performance. The presupplementary motor area (preSMA) is involved in chunking and other related processes such as task switching, response selection, and response inhibition that are crucial for organizing sequential movements. However, previous studies(More)
BACKGROUND Few reports in the literature relate morphologic changes of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) to prior elbow symptoms. This study used ultrasonography (US) to assess the ulnohumeral joint space width, with and without stress, and elucidate morphologic changes of the UCL of the elbow in high school pitchers with and without a history of elbow(More)
Although shoulder apprehension is an established clinical finding and is important for the prevention of shoulder dislocation, how this subjective perception is evoked remains unclear. We elucidated the functional neuroplasticity associated with apprehension in patients with recurrent anterior shoulder instability (RSI) using functional magnetic resonance(More)
A rotator cuff tear (RCT) is a common musculoskeletal disorder among elderly people. RCT is often treated conservatively for functional compensation by the remaining muscles. However, the mode of such compensation after RCT has not yet been fully understood. Here, we used the RCT rat model to investigate the compensatory process in the remaining muscles.(More)
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