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A phantom study for dosimetry in the urethra using alanine/ESR during (192)Ir HDR brachytherapy of prostate cancer is presented. The measurement method of the secondary standard of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt had to be slightly modified in order to be able to measure inside a Foley catheter. The absorbed dose to water response of the alanine(More)
− In the current brachytherapy practice, the procedures to determine the absorbed dose imparted to the patient are affected by an uncertainty higher than in radiotherapy with external beams. That could reduce the success of brachytherapy treatments. Most of the uncertainty is due to a lacking metrology: no absorbed-dose primary standards are so far(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate whether a chamber-type-specific radiation quality correction factor kQ can be determined in order to measure the reference air kerma rate of (60)Co high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy sources with acceptable uncertainty by means of a well-type ionization chamber calibrated for (192)Ir HDR sources. METHODS(More)
According to the relaxation principle (Selbach) a phase of vagotropic preponderance is preceding to a generalized convulsion and is immediately overcome during convulsion by an increased sympathicus tonus. Conditions of generalized convulsions recently observed by animal experiments, such as high exspiratory neuronal activity and apnea a short time before(More)
A large air-filled parallel-plate extrapolation chamber in a phantom of water-equivalent material is used as a primary standard measuring device for low-energy interstitial brachytherapy sources from which the unit of absorbed dose to water can be derived. The chamber is suitable for low-energy photons with energies up to 50 keV. The method to determine the(More)
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