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Is perception of the whole based on perception of its parts? There is psychological and physiological evidence for parts-based representations in the brain, and certain computational theories of object recognition rely on such representations. But little is known about how brains or computers might learn the parts of objects. Here we demonstrate an(More)
We propose an algorithm called <italic>query by commitee</italic>, in which a committee of students is trained on the same data set. The next query is chosen according to the <italic>principle of maximal disagreement</italic>. The algorithm is studied for two toy models: the high-low game and perceptron learning of another perceptron. As the number of(More)
We analyze the " query by committee " algorithm, a method for filtering informative queries from a random stream of inputs. We show that if the two-member committee algorithm achieves information gain with positive lower bound, then the prediction error decreases exponentially with the number of queries. We show that, in particular, this exponential(More)
Studies of the neural correlates of short-term memory in a wide variety of brain areas have found that transient inputs can cause persistent changes in rates of action potential firing, through a mechanism that remains unknown. In a premotor area that is responsible for holding the eyes still during fixation, persistent neural firing encodes the angular(More)
Comprehensive high-resolution structural maps are central to functional exploration and understanding in biology. For the nervous system, in which high resolution and large spatial extent are both needed, such maps are scarce as they challenge data acquisition and analysis capabilities. Here we present for the mouse inner plexiform layer--the main(More)
Artificial neural networks are often trained by using the back propagation algorithm to compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to the synaptic strengths. For a biological neural network, such a gradient computation would be difficult to implement, because of the complex dynamics of intrinsic and synaptic conductances in neurons. Here we(More)
Previous work in goldfish has suggested that the oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator for horizontal eye movements may be confined bilaterally to a distinct group of medullary neurons that show an eye-position signal. To establish this localization, the anatomy and discharge properties of these position neurons were characterized with(More)
How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, here we reconstruct Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of 'citizen neuroscientists'. On the basis of(More)
It is well-known that chemical synaptic transmission is an unreliable process, but the function of such unreliability remains unclear. Here I consider the hypothesis that the randomness of synaptic transmission is harnessed by the brain for learning, in analogy to the way that genetic mutation is utilized by Darwinian evolution. This is possible if synapses(More)