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Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) has previously been shown to be a useful decomposition for multivariate data. Two different multi-plicative algorithms for NMF are analyzed. They differ only slightly in the multiplicative factor used in the update rules. One algorithm can be shown to minimize the conventional least squares error while the other… (More)

We propose an algorithm called <italic>query by commitee</italic>, in which a committee of students is trained on the same data set. The next query is chosen according to the <italic>principle of maximal disagreement</italic>. The algorithm is studied for two toy models: the high-low game and perceptron learning of another perceptron. As the number of… (More)

We analyze the " query by committee " algorithm, a method for filtering informative queries from a random stream of inputs. We show that if the two-member committee algorithm achieves information gain with positive lower bound, then the prediction error decreases exponentially with the number of queries. We show that, in particular, this exponential… (More)

Comprehensive high-resolution structural maps are central to functional exploration and understanding in biology. For the nervous system, in which high resolution and large spatial extent are both needed, such maps are scarce as they challenge data acquisition and analysis capabilities. Here we present for the mouse inner plexiform layer--the main… (More)

Artificial neural networks are often trained by using the back propagation algorithm to compute the gradient of an objective function with respect to the synaptic strengths. For a biological neural network, such a gradient computation would be difficult to implement, because of the complex dynamics of intrinsic and synaptic conductances in neurons. Here we… (More)

The equilibrium phenomenon of matching behavior traditionally has been studied in stationary environments. Here we attempt to uncover the local mechanism of choice that gives rise to matching by studying behavior in a highly dynamic foraging environment. In our experiments, 2 rhesus monkeys (Macacca mulatta) foraged for juice rewards by making eye movements… (More)

How does the mammalian retina detect motion? This classic problem in visual neuroscience has remained unsolved for 50 years. In search of clues, here we reconstruct Off-type starburst amacrine cells (SACs) and bipolar cells (BCs) in serial electron microscopic images with help from EyeWire, an online community of 'citizen neuroscientists'. On the basis of… (More)

— We present a learning system which is able to quickly and reliably acquire a robust feedback control policy for 3D dynamic walking from a blank-slate using only trials implemented on our physical robot. The robot begins walking within a minute and learning converges in approximately 20 minutes. This success can be attributed to the mechanics of our robot,… (More)

We present a method of estimating the gradient of an objective function with respect to the synaptic weights of a spiking neural network. The method works by measuring the fluctuations in the objective function in response to dynamic perturbation of the membrane conductances of the neurons. It is compatible with recurrent networks of conductance-based model… (More)

We analyze the "query by committee" algorithm, a method for filtering informative queries from a random stream of inputs. We show that if the two-member committee algorithm achieves information gain with positive lower bound, then the prediction error decreases exponentially with the number of queries. We show that, in particular, this exponential decrease… (More)