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The generalized transducing double-stranded DNA bacteriophage ES18 has an icosahedral head and a long noncontractile tail, and it infects both rough and smooth Salmonella enterica strains. We report here the complete 46,900-bp genome nucleotide sequence and provide an analysis of the sequence. Its 79 genes and their organization clearly show that ES18 is a(More)
Typing phages for Salmonella and the prophages of their typical propagation strains were analyzed at the DNA level. Most of them belong to the P22 branch of the lambdoid phages. Acquisition of new plating properties of the typing phages by propagation in particular strains can be due to different host specific modifications of the DNA or to recombination(More)
Epidemic strain Salmonella typhimurium DT104 is characterized by various multiresistance patterns. At least some of the resistance genes are organized as integrons. Resistance genes of DT104 isolates can be efficiently transduced by P22-like phage ES18 and by phage PDT17 which is released by all DT104 isolates so far analyzed. Cotransduction tests(More)
The properties of mutants of the Salmonella phage P22 are described which show decreased or increased frequencies for generalized transduction. It is shown that not only the markers used for detection of the mutants are affected by the mutation but also other markers tested. Evidence is presented that the altered T/P-ratios reflect changes in the actual(More)
From 85 natural isolates of the Salmonella typhimurium complex, including the Salmonella reference collection A (P. Beltran, S. A. Plock, N. H. Smith, T. S. Whittam, D. C. Old, and R. K. Selander, J. Gen. Microbiol. 137:601-606, 1991), 65 strains (76.5%) released 71 different temperate phages. Forty-three (93.5%) of 46 tested phages were able to transduce(More)
Genomes of newly isolated Salmonella phages were analysed by comparison of their EcoRI restriction patterns and by hybridization. Characteristic hybridization probes from reference phages P22, ES18 and E. coli phage lambda were chosen. Four probes selected from the lysis region examined the dispersal of the lambdoid lysis genes. Other probes characterized(More)
Despite an increasing interest in horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, the role of generalized transduction in this process has not been well investigated yet. Certainly one of the reasons is that only a small fraction of general transducing bacteriophages have been characterized, because many bacterial hosts needed for propagation and identification are(More)
Several collections of natural isolates of the genus Salmonella and of the species Escherichia coli were studied for the release of viable temperate phages. The results indicated that functional prophage genomes may be a common constituent of all bacterial genomes of the investigated strains. About 99% of the Salmonella phages are capable of generalized(More)
Bacteriophage P22 DNA packaging events occur in processive series on concatemeric phage DNA molecules. At the point where such series initiate, the DNA is recognized at a site called pac, and most molecular left ends are generated within six short regions called end sites, which are present in a 120 base-pair region surrounding the pac site. The(More)
Two types of tailed bacteriophages were detected by electron microscopy in a Borrelia burgdorferi strain which had been isolated from infected human skin and exposed to the gyrase inhibitor ciprofloxacin. One of these phages displayed an isometric 30 nm head, a neck and a contractile tail 50-64 nm in length with a baseplate, according to an A-1 morphology.(More)