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BACKGROUND The causes of intellectual disability remain largely unknown because of extensive clinical and genetic heterogeneity. METHODS We evaluated patients with intellectual disability to exclude known causes of the disorder. We then sequenced the coding regions of more than 21,000 genes obtained from 100 patients with an IQ below 50 and their(More)
BACKGROUND Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) is an autosomal recessive condition characterised by congenital muscular dystrophy, structural brain defects, and eye malformations. Typical brain abnormalities are hydrocephalus, lissencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, fusion of the hemispheres, cerebellar hypoplasia, and neuronal overmigration, which causes(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) results from mutations of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene on chromosome 5. The SMN gene exists in two highly homologous copies, telomeric (SMN1) and centromeric (SMN2). SMA is caused by mutations in SMN1 but not SMN2. The clinical phenotype of SMA appears to be related to the expression of SMN2. Patients(More)
Mitotic gene conversion acting as reverse mutation has not been previously demonstrated in human. We report here that the revertant mosaicism of a compound heterozygous proband with an autosomal recessive genodermatosis, generalized atrophic benign epidermolysis bullosa, is caused by mitotic gene conversion of one of the two mutated COL17A1 alleles.(More)
The increasing number of laboratories offering molecular genetic analysis of the CFTR gene and the growing use of commercial kits strengthen the need for an update of previous best practice guidelines (published in 2000). The importance of organizing regional or national laboratory networks, to provide both primary and comprehensive CFTR mutation screening,(More)
Molecular diagnostics for patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) has been hampered by extreme genetic and clinical heterogeneity, with 52 causative genes known to date. Here, we developed a comprehensive next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach for the clinical molecular diagnostics of RP. All known inherited retinal disease genes (n = 111) were captured(More)
Spastic paraplegia type 7 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder mainly characterized by progressive bilateral lower limb spasticity and referred to as a form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Additional disease features may also be observed as part of a more complex phenotype. Many different mutations have already been identified, but no(More)
OBJECTIVE Several studies have suggested an increased frequency of variants in the gene encoding angiogenin (ANG) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Interestingly, a few ALS patients carrying ANG variants also showed signs of Parkinson disease (PD). Furthermore, relatives of ALS patients have an increased risk to develop PD, and the(More)
BACKGROUND International prevalence estimates of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) vary from 0.3 to 2.0 per 100,000. The prevalence of ADCA in the Netherlands is unknown. Fifteen genetic loci have been identified (SCA-1-8, SCA-10-14, SCA-16, and SCA-17) and nine of the corresponding genes have been cloned. In SCA-1, SCA2, SCA3, SCA6, SCA7, SCA-12(More)