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To quantify performance of the goldfish oculomotor neural integrator and determine its dependence on visual feedback, we measured the relationship between eye drift-velocity and position during spontaneous gaze fixations in the light and in the dark. In the light, drift-velocities were typically less than 1 deg/s, similar to those observed in humans. During(More)
Digital circuits such as the flip-flop use feedback to achieve multistability and nonlinearity to restore signals to logical levels, for example 0 and 1. Analogue feedback circuits are generally designed to operate linearly, so that signals are over a range, and the response is unique. By contrast, the response of cortical circuits to sensory stimulation(More)
It is often assumed that learning takes place by changing an otherwise stable neural representation. To test this assumption, we studied changes in the directional tuning of primate motor cortical neurons during reaching movements performed in familiar and novel environments. During the familiar task, tuning curves exhibited slow random drift. During(More)
Many theories of neural networks assume rules of connection between pairs of neurons that are based on their cell types or functional properties. It is finally becoming feasible to test such pairwise models of connectivity, due to emerging advances in neuroanatomical techniques. One method will be to measure the functional properties of connected pairs of(More)
We have used a novel phase-referenced heterodyne dual-beam low-coherence interferometer to perform what we believe are the first noncontact measurements of surface motion in a nerve bundle during the action potential. Nerve displacements of approximately 5-nm amplitude and approximately 10-ms duration are measured without signal averaging. This(More)
We present a method for studying synaptic transmission in mass cultures of dissociated hippocampal neurons based on patch clamp recording combined with laser stimulation of neurons expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2). Our goal was to use the high spatial resolution of laser illumination to come as close as possible to the ideal of identifying(More)
Visual motion information is computed by parallel On and Off pathways in the retina, which lead to On and Off types of starburst amacrine cells (SACs). The approximate mirror symmetry between this pair of cell types suggests that On and Off pathways might compute motion using analogous mechanisms. To test this idea, we reconstructed On SACs and On bipolar(More)
We study two-dimensional motion perception in flies using a semi-circular visual stimulus. Measurements of both the H1-neuron and the optomotor response are consistent with a simple model supposing spatial integration of the outputs of correlation-type motion detectors. In both experiment and model, there is substantial H1 and horizontal (yaw) optomotor(More)
We describe a heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometric microscope capable of quantitative phase imaging of biological samples with subnanometer sensitivity and frame rates up to 10 kHz. We use the microscope to image cultured neurons and measure nanometer-scale voltage-dependent motions in cells expressing the membrane motor protein prestin.