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The functions of many open reading frames (ORFs) identified in genome-sequencing projects are unknown. New, whole-genome approaches are required to systematically determine their function. A total of 6925 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were constructed, by a high-throughput strategy, each with a precise deletion of one of 2026 ORFs (more than one-third of(More)
Heterodimerization between members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins is a key event in the regulation of programmed cell death. The molecular basis for heterodimer formation was investigated by determination of the solution structure of a complex between the survival protein Bcl-xL and the death-promoting region of the Bcl-2-related protein Bak. The structure(More)
Lowering the dosage of a single gene from two copies to one copy in diploid yeast results in a heterozygote that is sensitized to any drug that acts on the product of this gene. This haploinsufficient phenotype thereby identifies the gene product of the heterozygous locus as the likely drug target. We exploited this finding in a genomic approach to(More)
Currently available crosslinking agents used in fixing bioprostheses are all highly (or relatively highly) cytotoxic, which may induce an adverse inflammatory reaction in vivo. It is therefore desirable to provide a crosslinking agent that is of low cytotoxicty and may form stable and biocompatible crosslinked products. To achieve this goal, a naturally(More)
Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is phosphorylated at Ser-1179 (bovine sequence) by Akt after growth factor or shear stress stimulation of endothelial cells, resulting in increased eNOS activity. Purified eNOS is also phosphorylated at Thr-497 by purified AMP-activated protein kinase, resulting in decreased eNOS activity. We investigated whether(More)
THE Bcl-2 family of proteins regulate programmed cell death by an unknown mechanism. Here we describe the crystal and solution structures of a Bcl-2 family member, Bcl-xL (ref. 2). The structures consist of two central, primarily hydrophobic alpha-helices, which are surrounded by amphipathic helices. A 60-residue loop connecting helices alpha1 and alpha2(More)
The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unique among eukaryotes in exhibiting fast growth in both the presence and the complete absence of oxygen. Genome-wide transcriptional adaptation to aerobiosis and anaerobiosis was studied in assays using DNA microarrays. This technique was combined with chemostat cultivation, which allows controlled variation of a(More)
SETTING Crowded townships of Cape Town, South Africa, where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and tuberculosis (TB) notification rates are among the highest in the world. OBJECTIVES To determine age-specific prevalence rates of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among HIV-negative individuals, and the annual risk and force of infection(More)
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is a predominantly hepatic enzyme known to be important in the metabolism of numerous foreign chemicals of pharmacologic, toxicologic, and carcinogenic significance. CYP1A2 substrates include aflatoxin B1, acetaminophen, and a variety of environmental arylamines. To define better the developmental and metabolic functions of this(More)