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We examined the importance of cell death in producing the limb deformity phenotype of the Hammertoe mouse. In order to make this evaluation, we first combined several techniques to verify the reliability of cell death markers in the normal mouse limb. In the normal limb, cell death occurs between Days 10.5 and 15.5 in the anterior, interdigital, and(More)
Detection of cell death throughout embryogenesis demonstrates its importance in the normal form and function of the organism. We have examined cellular death during normal limb development by use of markers that display the morphology of cell death, the presence of phagocytic cells, and lysosomal activity. In addition in situ labeling confirms fragmentation(More)
In a series of studies to more precisely localize the cellular sites of expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) family members in reproductive organs, we observed a striking expression of Cdk5 in atretic follicles in the ovary, particularly in granulosa cells that appeared to be dying. We determined that these granulosa cells were undergoing(More)
Clusterin is found in a wide variety of tissues and is expressed in a number of physiological and pathological contexts. It is expressed constitutively in the adult male reproductive tract, specifically the testes and caput of the epididymis. The gene is also induced during apoptotic cell death in the kidney and hormone-dependent tissues such as the(More)
Cell death is an integral part of a variety of biological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and morphogenesis. We review here the morphological and biochemical nature as well as the genetic basis for cell death during normal and abnormal development. Most often referred to in normal development as programmed cell death, this(More)
Retinoids, used therapeutically primarily in the treatment of skin disorders, are potent teratogens. Several craniofacial, neural tube, and limb defects derive from a selective increase in cell death by retinoic acid in sites of spontaneous programmed cell death. Previously we showed that programmed cell death in the limb was apoptotic, and that the webbing(More)
We have investigated the role of cyclin-dependent kinases in cell death and found that the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is associated with apoptotic cell death in both adult and embryonic tissues. By double labeling immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy, we specifically associated the expression of Cdk5 to dying cells. The(More)
Clusterin, originally isolated as testosterone-repressed prostate message-2 from regressing rat ventral prostate, has been identified with the process of active cell death (ACD). The clusterin gene product is a glycosylated dimer consisting of alpha and beta subunits, resulting from the 70-kilodalton preprotein. To determine its relationship with ACD, we(More)
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