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In this study, the statistical properties of a range of measurements are compared with those of their surrogate time series. Seven different records are studied, amongst others , historical time series of mean daily temperature, daily rain sums and runoff from two rivers, and cloud measurements. Seven different algorithms are used to generate the surrogate(More)
On analyzing data of biochemical reaction dynamics monitored by time-resolved spectroscopy, one faces the problem that the concentration time courses of the involved components are not directly observed, but the superposition of their absorption spectra. Furthermore the single spectra are often unknown, because the corresponding reagents cannot be isolated.(More)
Localized electronic defects on the surface of a 4 monolayer (ML) thin MgO(001) film deposited on Ag(001) have been investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Depending on the location of the defect, we observe for the first time different defect energy levels in the band gap of MgO. The charge state of defects can be(More)
In this Letter, we report a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy study aiming to explore the adsorption properties of Au with respect to the thickness of supported MgO films. For different MgO film thicknesses (3 ML and 8 ML), we find significant differences in the distribution of Au adsorption sites and in the Au cluster geometry, in line with(More)
In the present Letter the first electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of single metal atoms on a single crystalline oxide surface are presented. For Au atoms on a MgO(001) film investigated here an analysis of the angular dependent resonance positions and the hyperfine coupling to (17)O shows that the atoms are bound on top of oxygen ions on the terrace(More)
The spatial distribution of single Au atoms on a thin FeO film has been investigated by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. The adatoms preferentially adsorb on distinct sites of the Moiré cell formed by the oxide layer and the Pt(111) support and arrange into a well-ordered hexagonal superlattice with 25 angstroms lattice(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Climate of the Past (CP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in CP if available. Abstract Assessing the relationship between temperature variations and solar activity requires much physical and statistical insight. This paper is devoted to the latter. We focus on the statistical(More)
The formation of surface color centers (F(S) centers) by electron bombardment of thin MgO(001) films is investigated using electron paramagnetic resonance and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy. At low electron doses both techniques indicate the formation of singly occupied color centers (F(S)(+)), whereas at high electron doses the doubly(More)