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In this study, the statistical properties of a range of measurements are compared with those of their surrogate time series. Seven different records are studied, amongst others , historical time series of mean daily temperature, daily rain sums and runoff from two rivers, and cloud measurements. Seven different algorithms are used to generate the surrogate(More)
On analyzing data of biochemical reaction dynamics monitored by time-resolved spectroscopy, one faces the problem that the concentration time courses of the involved components are not directly observed, but the superposition of their absorption spectra. Furthermore the single spectra are often unknown, because the corresponding reagents cannot be isolated.(More)
The selective excitation of molecular vibrations provides a means to directly influence the speed and outcome of chemical reactions. Such mode-selective chemistry has traditionally used laser pulses to prepare reactants in specific vibrational states to enhance reactivity or modify the distribution of product species. Inelastic tunnelling electrons may also(More)
This discussion paper is/has been under review for the journal Climate of the Past (CP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in CP if available. Abstract Assessing the relationship between temperature variations and solar activity requires much physical and statistical insight. This paper is devoted to the latter. We focus on the statistical(More)
Here, we present a microevaporator setup for single adatom deposition at low temperature, which is a prerequisite for most single atom studies with scanning probe techniques. The construction of the microevaporator is based on the tungsten filament of a modified halogen lamp, covered with the required adsorbate. Very stable evaporation conditions were(More)
We demonstrate that bulk band structure can have a strong influence in scanning tunneling microscopy measurements by resolving electronic interference patterns associated with scattering phenomena of bulk states at a metal surface and reconstructing the bulk band topology. Our data reveal that bulk information can be detected because states at the edge of(More)
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