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BACKGROUND Neramexane is a new substance that exhibits antagonistic properties at α9α10 cholinergic nicotinic receptors and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, suggesting potential efficacy in the treatment of tinnitus. METHODS A total of 431 outpatients with moderate to severe subjective tinnitus (onset 3-18 months before screening) were assigned randomly to(More)
Drugs that are able to shift effort-related decision making in intact rats towards high-effort response options are largely unknown. Here, we examined the effects of two candidate drugs, MRZ-9547 and its l-enantiomer MRZ-9546 on progressive ratio (PR) responding using two different tasks, a standard PR task that involves increasing ratio requirements and a(More)
Sarizotan exhibited high affinities only to serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and dopamine DA D4>D3>D2 receptors with the profile of a 5-HT1A agonist and DA antagonist demonstrated by the inhibition of cAMP-stimulation and guinea pig ileum contraction, decreased accumulation of the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and increased levels of 5-HT metabolites,(More)
From studies on sympathetically innervated peripheral tissues it is well known that both neuronal and non-neuronal transport systems contribute to the inactivation of released monoamine transmitters. The close proximity between synapses and glia cell processes in the CNS leads to the so far unresolved question whether non-neuronal transporters are involved(More)
Administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) to common marmosets causes a profound loss of dopamine and serotonin in the striatum. Additional daily systemic treatment of monkeys with the antioxidants ascorbic acid (100 mg/kg) and alpha-tocopherol (2,350 mg/kg) prior to, during and following administration of MPTP does not prevent(More)
Clinical features that are prognostic indicators of placebo response among dyskinetic Parkinson's disease patients were determined. Placebo-associated improvements occur in Parkinsonism, but responses in dyskinesia have not been studied. Placebo data from two multicenter studies with identical design comparing sarizotan to placebo for treating dyskinesia(More)
In view of the calcium hypothesis the effect of nimodipine (Bay e 9736, CAS 66085-59-4) on the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced depletions in dopamine and serotonin were investigated in C57-BL/6 mice. Oral treatment with nimodipine (5 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg b.i.d., respectively, for 9 days) prior to, during and following(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most frequent, chronic, progressive degenerative disorders of the CNS, characterised by altered neurotransmission of dopamine in the basal ganglia. This may result in disturbances of movement, mobility and posture symptoms, all of which cause severe disability in PD patients. There is no cure for PD. Current treatment(More)