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The mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, is a ubiquitous membrane-embedded valve involved in turgor regulation in bacteria. The crystal structure of MscL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides a starting point for analysing molecular mechanisms of tension-dependent channel gating. Here we develop structural models in which a cytoplasmic(More)
Three-dimensional structural models of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli were developed for closed, intermediate, and open conformations. The modeling began with the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis MscL, a homopentamer with two transmembrane alpha-helices, M1 and(More)
We have studied the membrane topology and multimeric structure of a mechanosensitive channel, MscL, which we previously isolated and cloned from Escherichia coli. We have localized this 15-kDa protein to the inner membrane and, by PhoA fusion, have shown that it contains two transmembrane domains with both the amino and carboxyl termini on the cytoplasmic(More)
Energies required to transfer amino acid side chains from water to less polar environments were calculated from results of several studies and compared with several statistical analyses of residue distributions in soluble proteins. An analysis that divides proteins into layers parallel with their surfaces is more informative than those that simply classify(More)
Theoretical methods are used to develop models for the ion channel structure of the membrane-bound amyloid beta-protein. This follows recent observations that the beta-protein forms cation-selective channels in lipid bilayers in vitro. Amyloid beta-protein is the main component of the extracellular plaques in the brain that are characteristic of Alzheimer's(More)
Inwardly rectifying potassium channels are important in cellular repolarization of many excitable tissues. Amino acid sequence alignment of different mammalian inward rectifier K(+) channels revealed two absolutely conserved cysteine residues in the putative extracellular face, suggesting a possible disulfide bond. Replacement of these cysteine residues in(More)
The chemokine receptor CCR5 is the major coreceptor for R5 human immunodeficiency virus type-1 strains. We mapped the epitope specificities of 18 CCR5 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to identify domains of CCR5 required for chemokine binding, gp120 binding, and for inducing conformational changes in Env that lead to membrane fusion. We identified mAbs that(More)
A large collaborative, multidisciplinary effort involving many research laboratories continues which uses indirect methods of molecular biology and membrane biophysics to analyze the three-dimensional structures and functional mechanisms of K+ channels. This work also extends to the distant relatives of these channels, including the voltage-gated Na+ and(More)