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Cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem (hES) cells potentially offer large numbers of cells to facilitate repair of the infarcted heart. However, this approach has been limited by inefficient differentiation of hES cells into cardiomyocytes, insufficient purity of cardiomyocyte preparations and poor survival of hES cell-derived myocytes after(More)
The mammalian heart has a very limited regenerative capacity and, hence, heals by scar formation. Recent reports suggest that haematopoietic stem cells can transdifferentiate into unexpected phenotypes such as skeletal muscle, hepatocytes, epithelial cells, neurons, endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes, in response to tissue injury or placement in a new(More)
RATIONALE The developing heart requires both mechanical load and vascularization to reach its proper size, yet the regulation of human heart growth by these processes is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE We seek to elucidate the responses of immature human myocardium to mechanical load and vascularization using tissue engineering approaches. METHODS AND(More)
Understanding pathways controlling cardiac development may offer insights that are useful for stem cell-based cardiac repair. Developmental studies indicate that the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway negatively regulates cardiac differentiation, whereas studies with pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells suggest that this pathway promotes cardiogenesis. This apparent(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are promising for cardiac repair, but directing their differentiation toward cardiomyocytes remains challenging. We investigated whether the heart guides ES cells toward cardiomyocytes in vivo and whether allogeneic ES cells were immunologically tolerated. Undifferentiated mouse ES cells consistently formed cardiac teratomas in(More)
Pluripotent stem cells provide a potential solution to current epidemic rates of heart failure by providing human cardiomyocytes to support heart regeneration. Studies of human embryonic-stem-cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) in small-animal models have shown favourable effects of this treatment. However, it remains unknown whether clinical-scale(More)
Expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+)-ATPase was shown to be reduced in failing human myocardium. The functional relevance of this finding, however, is not known. We investigated the relation between myocardial function and protein levels of SR Ca(2+)-ATPase in nonfailing human myocardium (8 muscle strips from 4 hearts) and in myocardium from(More)
Directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into cardiovascular cells provides a model for studying molecular mechanisms of human cardiovascular development. Although it is known that chromatin modification patterns in ESCs differ markedly from those in lineage-committed progenitors and differentiated cells, the temporal dynamics of(More)
The regulation of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration during excitation-contraction coupling is altered in the failing human heart. Previous studies have focused on disturbances in Ca2+ release and reuptake from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), whereas functional studies of the cardiac Na(+)-Ca2+ exchanger, another important determinant of myocyte homeostasis, are(More)
BACKGROUND Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is an important regulator of differentiation and morphogenesis that can also control stem cell fates. Our group has developed an efficient protocol to generate cardiomyocytes from human embryonic stem (ES) cells via induction with activin A and BMP4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We tested the hypothesis that(More)