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Extendible hashing is a new access technique, in which the user is guaranteed no more than two page faults to locate the data associated with a given unique identifier, or key. Unlike conventional hashing, extendible hashing has a dynamic structure that grows and shrinks gracefully as the database grows and shrinks. This approach simultaneously solves the… (More)

Two different kinds of Byzantine Agreement for distributed systems with processor faults are defined and compared. The first is required when coordinated actions may be performed by each participant at different times. This kind is called Simultaneous Byzantine Agreement (SBA).
This paper deals with the number of rounds of message exchange required to reach… (More)

In loosely coupled distributed systems subject to random communication delays and component failures, atomic brocrdcart protocols can be used to implement the abstraction of a A-common sfomge, a replicated storage that displays at any clock time the same contents to every correct processor and that requires A time units to complete replicated updates. We… (More)

It is known that clock synchronization can be achieved in the presence of faulty clocks numbering more than one-third of the total number of participating clocks provided that some authentication technique is used. Without authentication the number of faults that can be tolerated has been an open question. Here we show that if we restrict logical clocks to… (More)

Reaching agreement in a distributed system while handling malfunctioning behavior is a central issue for reliable computer systems. All previous algorithms for reaching the agreement required an exponential number of messages to be sent, with or without authentication. We give polynomial algorithms for reaching (Byzantine) agreement, both with and without… (More)

This paper gives two simple efficient distributed algorithms: one for keeping clocks in a network synchronized and one for allowing new processors to join the network with their clocks synchronized. The algorithms tolerate both link and node failures of any type. The algorithm for maintaining synchronization will work for arbitrary networks (rather than… (More)

We describe several new algorithms for Byzantine agreement. The first of-these is a simplification of the original exponential-time Byzantine agreement algorithm due to Pease, Shostak, and Lamport, and is of comparable complexity to their algorithm. However, its proof is very intuitively appealing. A technique of shifting between algorithms for solving the… (More)

Consider a communication network G in which a limited number of link and/or node faults F might occur. A routing &rgr; for the network (a fixed path between each pair of nodes) must be chosen without any knowledge of which components might become faulty. Choosing a good routing corresponds to bounding the diameter of the <italic>surviving route… (More)

Byzantine Agreement involves a system of n processes, of which some t may be faulty. The problem is for the correct processes to agree on a binary value sent by a transmitter that may itself be one of the n processes. If the transmitter sends the same value to each process, then all correct processes must agree on that value, but in any case, they must… (More)