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Acetylcholine released by efferent vagus nerves inhibits macrophage activation. Here we show that the anti-inflammatory action of nicotinic receptor activation in peritoneal macrophages was associated with activation of the transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 was phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinase Jak2 that was recruited to the α7 subunit of the nicotinic(More)
Food intake and energy expenditure are controlled by complex, redundant, and distributed neural systems that reflect the fundamental biological importance of adequate nutrient supply and energy balance. Much progress has been made in identifying the various hormonal and neural mechanisms by which the brain informs itself about availability of ingested and(More)
The results of neural tracing studies suggest that vagal afferent fibers in cervical and thoracic branches innervate the esophagus, lower airways, heart, aorta, and possibly the thymus, and via abdominal branches the entire gastrointestinal tract, liver, portal vein, billiary system, pancreas, but not the spleen. In addition, vagal afferents innervate(More)
Discovery of the leptin receptor and its downstream peptidergic pathways has reconfirmed the crucial role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. Strategically located in the midst of the mammalian neuraxis, the hypothalamus receives at least three distinct types of relevant information via direct or indirect neural(More)
The overriding of satiety and homeostatic control mechanisms by cognitive, rewarding, and emotional aspects of palatable foods may contribute to the evolving obesity crisis, but little is known about neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for crosstalk between the "cognitive" and "metabolic" brain in the control of appetite. Here we show that neural(More)
Obesity is on the rise in all developed countries, and a large part of this epidemic has been attributed to excess caloric intake, induced by ever present food cues and the easy availability of energy dense foods in an environment of plenty. Clearly, there are strong homeostatic regulatory mechanisms keeping body weight of many individuals exposed to this(More)
A changing environment and lifestyle on the background of evolutionary engraved and perinatally imprinted physiological response patterns is the foremost explanation for the current obesity epidemic. However, it is not clear what the mechanisms are by which the modern environment overrides the physiological controls of appetite and homeostatic body-weight(More)
The vanilloid receptor VR1 is a nonselective cation channel activated by capsaicin as well as increases in temperature and acidity, and can be viewed as molecular integrator of chemical and physical stimuli that elicit pain. The distribution of VR1 receptors in peripheral and central processes of rat primary vagal afferent neurons innervating the(More)
BACKGROUND Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is very effective in reducing excess body weight and improving glucose homeostasis in obese subjects. Changes in the pattern of gut hormone secretion are thought to play a major role, but the mechanisms leading to both changed hormone secretion and beneficial effects remain unclear. Specifically, it is not(More)
In a restrictive food environment, the homeostatic control system regulates body weight and adiposity with remarkable precision. However, this regulation appears to break down in many genetically predisposed individuals under conditions prevailing in the modern era characterized by a sedentary lifestyle and easy availability of large portions of palatable(More)