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Phosphatidylinositol 4 phosphate [PI(4)P] is essential for secretion in yeast, but its role in mammalian cells is unclear. Current paradigms propose that PI(4)P acts primarily as a precursor to phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate (PIP2), an important plasma membrane regulator. We found that PI(4)P is enriched in the mammalian Golgi, and used RNA(More)
Plants progress through a temporal sequence of juvenile, adult, and reproductive phases, each marked by the expression of phase-specific traits. Here we show that loss-of-function mutations in ZIPPY (ZIP) cause the premature expression of adult vegetative traits but do not accelerate the onset of reproductive competence or flowering time. ZIP encodes(More)
One of the challenges to understand the organization of the nervous system has been to determine how axon guidance molecules govern axon outgrowth. Through an unbiased genetic screen, we identified a conserved Wnt pathway which is crucial for anterior-posterior (A/P) outgrowth of neurites from RME head motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans. The pathway is(More)
Actin modulating proteins that bind polyphosphoinositides, such as phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate (PIP2), can potentially participate in receptor signaling by restructuring the membrane cytoskeleton and modulating second messenger generation through the phosphoinositide cycle. We examined these possibilities by overexpressing CapG, an actin filament(More)
Salmonella Typhimurium stimulates inflammatory responses in the intestinal epithelium, which are essential for its ability to replicate within the intestinal tract. Stimulation of these responses is strictly dependent on the activity of a type III secretion system encoded within its pathogenicity island 1, which through the delivery of effector proteins,(More)
Annexins are an evolutionarily conserved multigene family of calcium-dependent phospholipid binding proteins that play important roles in stress resistance and plant development. They have been relatively well characterized in model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa), but nothing has been reported in hexaploid bread wheat(More)
OBJECTIVE To explore the potential causative genes of paroxysmal hypnogenic dyskinesia (PHD), which was initially considered a subtype of paroxysmal dyskinesia and has been recently considered a form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE). METHODS Eleven patients with PHD were recruited. Mutations in proline-rich region transmembrane protein-2 (PRRT2),(More)
Poly(1-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone) (PACA) was firstly synthesized by a chemically oxidative interfacial polymerization. The PACA has been developed as a fluorescent sensor for the determination of Fe(III) in semi-aqueous solution at pH 7.0. The sensor exhibited remarkably high sensitivity toward Fe3+ since the fluorescence of the polymer could be(More)
The aim of the present study was to investigate the characteristics of the four subtypes of myelodysplastic/ myeloproliferative neoplasms (MDS/MPNs) in order to improve current knowledge and to aid their diagnosis. A total of 53 cases of MDS/MPNs were analyzed using routine blood cell analysis and morphological, cytogenetic and molecular genetic(More)