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Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is induced by immunization with myelin components including myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Myelin-specific Th1 cells enter the central nervous system (CNS) via binding of very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) to the endothelial vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). In the present study, mice with a(More)
BACKGROUND Interleukin (IL)-6 regulates various aspects of the immune response. In the context of heart diseases, it has been recognized as a prognostic factor for dilated cardiomyopathy, which often results from myocarditis. METHODS AND RESULTS Using IL-6-deficient mice, we studied the role of IL-6 in a model of autoimmune myocarditis resulting from(More)
The expression and action of Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) in multiple sclerosis has been postulated as a major pathway leading to inflammatory demyelination. To formally test this hypothesis, C57BL/6-lpr and -gld mice, which due to gene mutation express Fas and FasL in an inactive form, were immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide(35-55).(More)
The individual role of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and TNFR2 signaling in experimental autoimmune encephalomeylitis (EAE) was investigated using mice lacking TNFR1 (TNFR1-/-), TNFR2 (TNFR2-/-) as well as double receptor (TNFR1/2-/-) and double ligand (TNF/LT alpha-/-) knockout mice. In wild-type (wt) mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte(More)
Cytokines are important mediators of intracranial inflammation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). In the present study, the neurological impairment and mortality, blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, intracranial polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) accumulation, and posttraumatic neuronal cell death were monitored in mice lacking the genes for tumor(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) infection was suggested to play an important role in the development of cerebral malaria (CM). We asked whether TNF-alpha/beta double-deficient mice, which have a complete disruption of the TNF-signaling pathways, are protected from CM and what might be the possible mechanisms of(More)
Heterologous expression of cytochrome P-450 cDNAs in yeast is a potent instrument for the study of enzyme-specific parameters and can be used to answer questions with regard to substrate specificity as well as drug interaction in a background with no interfering activities. Two cDNAs of human CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were expressed in yeast Saccharomyces(More)
The expression of the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 and MIP-1alpha and of their receptors CXCR2 and CCR5 was assessed in wild type (WT) and TNF/lymphotoxin-alpha knockout (TNF/LT-alpha-/-) mice subjected to closed head injury (CHI). At 4 h after trauma intracerebral MIP-2 and MIP-1alpha levels were increased in both groups with MIP-2(More)
T-cell apoptosis in inflammatory demyelinating lesions of chronic myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide35-55 induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis was studied in several different gene knockout mice as well as their wild-type counterparts. The gene deletions included tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, lymphotoxin, TNF receptor 1 or 2, Fas-L, inducible(More)
Immunization of mice with myelin components results in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is mediated by myelin-specific CD4(+) T cells and anti-myelin antibodies. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and lymphotoxin alpha (LT-alpha) are thought to be involved in the events leading to inflammatory demyelination in the central nervous(More)