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The RAD51 gene of S. cerevisiae is involved in mitotic recombination and repair of DNA damage and also in meiosis. We show that the rad51 null mutant accumulates meiosis-specific double-strand breaks (DSBs) at a recombination hotspot and reduces the formation of physical recombinants. Rad51 protein shows structural similarity to RecA protein, the bacterial(More)
Yeast rad51 mutants are viable, but extremely sensitive to gamma-rays due to defective repair of double-strand breaks. In contrast, disruption of the murine RAD51 homologue is lethal, indicating an essential role of Rad51 in vertebrate cells. We generated clones of the chicken B lymphocyte line DT40 carrying a human RAD51 transgene under the control of a(More)
Hailey-Hailey disease (HHD, MIM 16960) is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and characterized by persistent blisters and erosions of the skin. Impaired intercellular adhesion and epidermal blistering also occur in individuals with pemphigus (which is due to autoantibodies directed against desmosomal proteins) and in patients with Darier disease (DD,(More)
During vertebrate embryonic development, a key to unraveling specific functions of gene products is the capability to manipulate expression of the gene of interest at the desired time and place. For this, we developed a 'microelectroporation' technique by which DNA can be locally introduced into a targeted site of avian embryos, restricting spatial(More)
The Rad51 and Lim15 proteins of lily, which are homologs of the bacterial RecA protein, were found on chromosomes in various stages of meiotic prophase 1. The presence of both Rad51 and Lim15 proteins as discrete foci on leptotene and zygotene chromosomes and their colocalization suggest that meiotic recombination begins at the leptotene stage with the(More)
A new mutant, which was sensitive to both methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS) and ultra-violet light (UV) and defective in meiotic recombination, was isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The gene, ESR1, was cloned by complementation of the MMS sensitivity of the mutant and found to be essential for cell growth, as the deleted haploid strain was lethal. The(More)
A total of 311 units, responsive to natural stimulation of the oral cavity, were isolated from the rostral part of the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) of rats. Of these, 169 "taste neurons", activated by taste stimulation, and 142 mechanoreceptive units, exclusively sensitive to mechanical stimulation of the oral cavity, were found. Most taste units (62.3%)(More)
This paper outlines the burden of oral diseases worldwide and describes the influence of major sociobehavioural risk factors in oral health. Despite great improvements in the oral health of populations in several countries, global problems still persist. The burden of oral disease is particularly high for the disadvantaged and poor population groups in both(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are mammalian homologues of the Drosophila Toll receptors and are thought to have roles in innate recognition of bacteria. We demonstrated that TLR 2, 4, 6, and 8 but not TLR5 were expressed on mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs). Using BMMCs from the genetically TLR4-mutated strain C3H/HeJ, we demonstrated that(More)
The RAD54 gene, which encodes a protein in the SWI2/SNF2 family, plays an important role in recombination and DNA repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast genome project revealed a homologue of RAD54, RDH54/TID1. Properties of the rdh54/tid1 mutant and the rad54 rdh54/tid1 double mutant are shown for mitosis and meiosis. The rad54 mutant is sensitive(More)