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BACKGROUND Vitamin B(2) exists in blood as riboflavin and its cofactors, flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and FAD. The erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC) has traditionally been used to assess vitamin B(2) status in humans. We investigated the relationships of EGRAC and plasma and erythrocyte concentrations of riboflavin, FMN, and(More)
Elevated plasma homocysteine, an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be lowered by administration of pharmacological doses of folic acid. The effect of lower doses in apparently normal subjects is currently unknown but is highly relevant to the question of food fortification. Healthy male volunteers (n = 30) participated in a(More)
BACKGROUND Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; EC 1.7.99.5) supplies the folate needed for the metabolism of homocysteine. A reduction in MTHFR activity, as occurs in the homozygous state for the 677C-->T (so-called thermolabile) enzyme variant (TT genotype), is associated with an increase in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). OBJECTIVE In vitro(More)
Fortification of food with folic acid to prevent neural-tube defects in babies also lowers plasma total homocysteine, which is a risk factor for vascular disease. We investigated the effect of folate and vitamin B12 on homocysteine concentrations. 30 men and 23 women received sequential supplementation with increasing doses of folic acid. After(More)
There is considerable interest in plasma homocysteine (tHcy) as a CVD risk factor. Although the secondary prevention trials published to date have been inconclusive in confirming a benefit of tHcy-lowering treatment with B-vitamins on CVD events generally, such studies are widely recognised to have been insufficiently powered to detect a significant effect(More)
Patients on antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may have elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy). The aim of this study was to assess the effect of B-vitamin supplementation on the levels of p-tHcy and markers of endothelial activation and lipid peroxidation. A total of 33 adult patients on AEDs were identified with either fasting (Group 1, n=23) or(More)
BACKGROUND Current data suggest that physiologic doses of vitamin B-6 have no significant homocysteine-lowering effect. It is possible that an effect of vitamin B-6 was missed in previous trials because of a much greater effect of folic acid, vitamin B-12, or both. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-dose vitamin B-6(More)
BACKGROUND In many countries, current recommendations are that women take a daily 400-mug folic acid supplement from before conception until the end of the 12th week of gestation for the prevention of neural tube defects. Low folate status is associated with an increased concentration of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor associated with(More)
BACKGROUND Recommendations by the UK Department of Health suggest that protection from neural tube defects (NTD) can be achieved through intakes of an extra 400 microgram daily of folate/folic acid as natural food, foods fortified with folic acid, or supplements. The assumption is that all three routes of intervention would have equal effects on folate(More)
The presence and biological significance of circulating glycated insulin has been evaluated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), radioimmunoassay (RIA), receptor binding, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp techniques. ESI-MS analysis of an HPLC-purified plasma pool from four male type 2(More)