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Ghrelin is an acylated peptide that stimulates the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Ghrelin-producing neurons are located in the hypothalamus, whereas ghrelin receptors are expressed in various regions of the brain, which is indicative of central-and as yet undefined-physiological functions. Here we show that ghrelin is involved in the(More)
We investigated the pathophysiological significance of adrenomedullin (AM) in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). LVH was produced by aortic banding (AB) in rats. The left ventricular weight/body weight (LV/BW) ratio, ventricular AM peptide and mRNA levels, and hemodynamics were measured at 1, 3, 7, and 21 days after the operation. Both(More)
Distribution of substance P-, [Leu]enkephalin-, cholecystokinin-8-, neurotensin-, avian pancreatic polypeptide- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone-like immunoreactive structures were investigated in the nucleus tractus solitarii of the rat by means of the indirect immunofluorescence method. The density of the immunoreactive structures varied markedly(More)
We measured the plasma levels of adrenomedullin (AM), a novel vasodilating peptide, in 89 patients with various forms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and 13 healthy volunteers serving as controls. Plasma levels of AM in SIRS (burns: 20.5 +/- 3. 2 fmol/ml [mean +/- SEM]; pancreatitis: 13.8 +/- 3.8 fmol/ml; trauma: 14.9 +/- 2.5 fmol/ml;(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) is a potent vasorelaxant peptide recently identified in extracts of pheochromocytoma. We have found that AM is actively secreted from endothelial cell (EC) and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). To elucidate the function of AM secreted from EC, the effects of 43 substances on secretion of AM from cultured rat EC were examined in this(More)
The existence of adrenomedullin (AM) in the rat hypothalamus was examined by immunohistochemistry. AM-immunoreactive neurons were found in the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and in the magnocellular parts of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The co-existence of AM-, oxytocin- and/or vasopressin-immunoreactivity was identified in the same neurons in the(More)
The distribution of neuromedin Us, uterus-stimulating and hypertensive peptides newly identified in porcine spinal cord, was examined in the rat brain by the indirect immunofluorescent method. Neuromedin U-like immunoreactive structures were found to be unevenly distributed in the neuronal system. Neuromedin U-like immunoreactive neurons were present in the(More)
The reactivity of cerebral blood vessels to changes in PaCO2 in areas of the cerebral cortex with or without diaschisis was investigated in 13 patients in a subacute or chronic stage after a small capsular infarct. A focal area of hypoperfusion (area of diaschisis) was detected in the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex in each patient. Hyperventilation caused(More)