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A diverse array of biologically active, lipid-soluble alkaloids have been discovered in amphibian skin. Such alkaloids include the following: the steroidal samandarines from salamanders, the batrachotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and epibatidine from neotropical poison frogs (Dendrobatidae), the pumiliotoxins, allopumiliotoxins,(More)
Alkaloids in the skin glands of poison frogs serve as a chemical defense against predation, and almost all of these alkaloids appear to be sequestered from dietary arthropods. Certain alkaloid-containing ants have been considered the primary dietary source, but dietary sources for the majority of alkaloids remain unknown. Herein we report the presence of(More)
Australian myobatrachid frogs of the genus Pseudophryne have only two classes of alkaloids in skin extracts, pseudophrynamines (PSs) and pumiliotoxins (PTXs). The former are unique to such Australian frogs, while the PTXs occur worldwide in all other genera of frogs/toads that contain lipophilic alkaloids. The major alkaloid of wild-caught frogs from one(More)
Nearly 500 alkaloids have been detected in skin extracts from frogs of the family Dendrobatidae. All seem to have been sequestered unchanged into skin glands from alkaloid-containing arthropods. Ants, beetles, and millipedes seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines, certain izidines, coccinellines, and spiropyrrolizidine oximes. But the dietary source(More)
Bufonid toads of the genus Melanophryniscus represent one of several lineages of anurans with the ability to sequester alkaloids from dietary arthropods for chemical defense. The alkaloid profile for Melanophryniscus stelzneri from a location in the province of Córdoba, Argentina, changed significantly over a 10-year period, probably indicating changes in(More)
Poison frogs contain an alkaloid-based chemical defense that is sequestered directly from a diet of alkaloid-containing arthropods. Geographic and temporal variation in alkaloid defense is common in poison frogs and is generally attributed to differences in the availability of alkaloid-containing arthropods. Variable chemical defense in poison frogs may(More)
Dendrobatid poison frogs readily accumulate alkaloids from diet into skin, where such compounds serve as a chemical defense against predators. Arthropods seem to be the source of decahydroquinolines (DHQs), several izidines, coccinellines, spiropyrrolizidines, pumiliotoxins (PTXs), and allopumiliotoxins (aPTXs). A DHQ iso-223F, and PTX (+)-251D were fed to(More)
The skin of poison frogs (Dendrobatidae) contains a wide variety of alkaloids that presumably serve a defensive role. These alkaloids persist for years in captivity, but are not present in captive-raised frogs. Alkaloids fed to poison frogs (Dendrobates, Phyllobates, Epipedobates) are readily accumulated into skin, where they remain for months. The process(More)
A remarkable diversity of bioactive lipophilic alkaloids is present in the skin of poison frogs and toads worldwide. Originally discovered in neotropical dendrobatid frogs, these alkaloids are now known from mantellid frogs of Madagascar, certain myobatrachid frogs of Australia, and certain bufonid toads of South America. Presumably serving as a passive(More)
A wide range of alkaloids, many of which are unknown elsewhere in nature, occur in skin of frogs. Major classes of such alkaloids in dendrobatid frogs are the batrachotoxins, pumiliotoxins, histrionicotoxins, gephyrotoxins, and decahydroquinolines. Such alkaloids are absent in skin of frogs (Dendrobates auratus) raised in Panama on wingless fruit flies in(More)