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The current research examines the influence of midazolam (MDZ) on memory reconsolidation using a contextual fear paradigm in rats, based on three context-shock training trials (0.7 mA, 3 s). First, we evaluate the effect of MDZ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) injected shortly after the training procedure. Second, we examined the influence of MDZ after a brief exposure (90(More)
When learned associations are recalled from long-term memory stores by presentation of an unreinforced conditioned stimulus (CS), two processes are initiated. One, termed reconsolidation, re-activates the association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli and transfers it from a stable protein synthesis-independent form of storage to a more(More)
In previous experiments on contextual memory, we proposed that the unreinforced re-exposure to the learning context (conditioned stimulus, CS) acts as a switch guiding the memory course toward reconsolidation or extinction, depending on reminder duration. This proposal implies that the system computes the total exposure time to the context, from CS onset to(More)
Glial cell-mediated potassium and glutamate homeostases play important roles in the regulation of neuronal excitability. Diminished potassium and glutamate buffering capabilities of astrocytes result in hyperexcitability of neurons and abnormal synaptic transmission. The role of the different K+ channels in maintaining the membrane potential and buffering(More)
Benzodiazepine (BDZ) administered shortly after retrieval disrupts the reconsolidation of fear memory. In this research, we explored the way in which different factors that limit the emergence of such process may affect BDZ's disruptive effect on fear memory reconsolidation. Animals were conditioned in a contextual fear paradigm; the consolidated memory was(More)
Consolidation theory assumes that memories are labile during a limited time window after acquisition, but as time passes, memories become stable and resistant to amnesic agents. However, the vision of immutable memories after consolidation has been challenged. Thus, after the presentation of a reminder, the reactivated old memories become labile and again(More)
Experiments with invertebrates support the view that intracellular events subserving the consolidation phase of memory are preserved across evolution. Here, we investigate whether such evolutionary persistence extends to reconsolidation mechanisms, which have recently received special attention in vertebrate studies. For this purpose, the memory model of(More)
The reconsolidation hypothesis states that a consolidated memory could again become unstable and susceptible to facilitation or impairment for a discrete period of time after a reminder presentation. The phenomenon has been demonstrated in very diverse species and types of memory, including the human procedural memory of a motor skill task but not the human(More)
Several studies support that stored memories undergo a new period of consolidation after retrieval. It is not known whether this process, termed reconsolidation, requires the same transcriptional mechanisms involved in consolidation. Increasing evidence supports the participation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in memory. This was initially(More)
A consolidated memory recalled by a reminder enters a vulnerability phase (labilization), followed by a process of stabilization (reconsolidation). Several authors have suggested that the labilization of the consolidated memory makes the incorporation of new information possible. Here, we demonstrate updating in the framework of memory declarative(More)