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Mice carrying mutations in multiple genes are traditionally generated by sequential recombination in embryonic stem cells and/or time-consuming intercrossing of mice with a single mutation. The CRISPR/Cas system has been adapted as an efficient gene-targeting technology with the potential for multiplexed genome editing. We demonstrate that(More)
The diversity and evolution of bitter taste perception in mammals is not well understood. Recent discoveries of bitter taste receptor (T2R) genes provide an opportunity for a genetic approach to this question. We here report the identification of 10 and 30 putative T2R genes from the draft human and mouse genome sequences, respectively, in addition to the(More)
Receptor proteins for photoreception have been studied for several decades. More recently, putative receptors for olfaction have been isolated and characterized. In contrast, no receptors for taste have been identified yet by molecular cloning. This report describes experiments aimed at identifying a receptor responsible for the taste of monosodium(More)
The type II bacterial CRISPR/Cas system is a novel genome-engineering technology with the ease of multiplexed gene targeting. Here, we created reporter and conditional mutant mice by coinjection of zygotes with Cas9 mRNA and different guide RNAs (sgRNAs) as well as DNA vectors of different sizes. Using this one-step procedure we generated mice carrying a(More)
Pheromones are chemicals produced and detected by conspecifics to elicit social/sexual physiological and behavioral responses, and they are perceived primarily by the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in terrestrial vertebrates. Two large superfamilies of G protein-coupled receptors, V1rs and V2rs, have been identified as pheromone receptors in vomeronasal sensory(More)
Technologies allowing for specific regulation of endogenous genes are valuable for the study of gene functions and have great potential in therapeutics. We created the CRISPR-on system, a two-component transcriptional activator consisting of a nuclease-dead Cas9 (dCas9) protein fused with a transcriptional activation domain and single guide RNAs (sgRNAs)(More)
alpha-Synuclein (alpha-Syn) abnormality and mitochondrial deficiency are two major changes in the brain of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). A link between alpha-Syn and mitochondria in PD has been demonstrated by a recent study showing that accumulation of alpha-Syn in the mitochondria from the PD-vulnerable brain regions was associated with(More)
Phosphorylated α-synuclein (PS-129), a protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), was identified by mass spectrometry in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A highly sensitive and specific assay was established and used to measure PS-129 together with total α-synuclein in the CSF of patients with PD, other parkinsonian disorders such(More)
The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is one of few regions in the adult mammalian brain characterized by ongoing neurogenesis. It has been demonstrated that Noggin antagonizes bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP4) to create a niche for subventricular zone neurogenesis. We previously demonstrated that Noggin and BMP4 showed strong expression in the(More)
Inhibition of growth signaling pathways protects against aging and age-related diseases in parallel with reduced oxidative stress. The relationships between growth signaling, oxidative stress and aging remain unclear. Here we report that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alterations in growth signaling pathways impact levels of superoxide anions that promote(More)