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Rotation of the bacterial flagellar motor is powered by a transmembrane gradient of protons or, in some species, sodium ions. The molecular mechanism of coupling between ion flow and motor rotation is not understood. The proteins most closely involved in motor rotation are MotA, MotB, and FliG. MotA and MotB are transmembrane proteins that function in(More)
The FliM protein of Escherichia coli is required for the assembly and function of flagella. Genetic analyses and binding studies have shown that FliM interacts with several other flagellar proteins, including FliN, FliG, phosphorylated CheY, other copies of FliM, and possibly MotA and FliF. Here, we examine the effects of a set of linker insertions and(More)
Apoptosis is a cell suicide programme characterised by unique cellular events such as mitochondrial fragmentation and dysfunction, nuclear condensation, cytoplasmic shrinkage and activation of apoptotic protease caspases, and these serve as the noticeable apoptotic markers for the commitment of cell demise. Here, we show that, however, the characterised(More)
BACKGROUND Our recent study observed that the expression of ubiquitin D (UBD), a member of ubiquitin-like modifier family, was upregulated in colon cancer parenchymal cells. The present study further investigated the clinical signicance of UBD in colon cancer. METHODS Using quantitative PCR, tissue microarray (TMA), western blot analysis and(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effectiveness of sodium ramping (profiling) in reducing hypotensive episodes and symptoms during haemodialysis. DESIGN Prospective study. SETTING Regional hospital, Hong Kong. PATIENTS Thirteen patients who experienced frequent episodes of hypotension and/or symptoms such as cramps, dizziness, chest pain, nausea, vomiting,(More)
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