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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
1. Interest in the morphologic development of the corpus callosum (CC) during childhood and adolescence stems from adolescent changes in cognitive functions subserved by the CC, reports of CC anomalies for a wide variety of childhood neuropsychiatric illnesses, and controversy regarding sexual dimorphism. 2. Characterization of the normal developmental(More)
We compare the sequences for the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene of 13 species of the Drosophila obscura group. The survey includes six members of the D. affinis subgroup, four of the D. pseudoobscura subgroup, and three of the D. obscura subgroup. In all species, the gene is 688 nucleotides in length, encoding a protein of 229 amino acids plus the(More)
We report measurements and analysis of a boreal forest fire, integrating the effects of greenhouse gases, aerosols, black carbon deposition on snow and sea ice, and postfire changes in surface albedo. The net effect of all agents was to increase radiative forcing during the first year (34 +/- 31 Watts per square meter of burned area), but to decrease(More)
We studied 6 advanced-stage Parkinson's disease patients with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose/positron emission tomography before and 3 months after unilateral ablation of the subthalamic nucleus performed with microelectrode mapping. Operative changes in glucose metabolism were assessed by comparing baseline and postoperative scans. We also quantified operative(More)
We report the development of a pseudorabies virus that can be used for retrograde tracing from selected neurons. This virus encodes a green fluorescent protein marker and replicates only in neurons that express the Cre recombinase and in neurons in synaptic contact with the originally infected cells. The virus was injected into the arcuate nucleus of mice(More)
We examine the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase II gene of 13 species of insects, representing 10 orders. The genes range from 673 to 690 bp in length, encoding 226 to 229 amino acids. Several insertion or deletion events, each involving one or two codons, can be observed. The 3' end of the gene is extremely variable in(More)
We have previously shown that members of the ELR(+) CXC chemokine family, including IL-8; growth-related oncogenes alpha, beta, and gamma; granulocyte chemotactic protein 2; and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein-78, can mediate angiogenesis in the absence of preceding inflammation. To date, the receptor on endothelial cells responsible for chemotaxis(More)
Intravenous delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) prepared from adult bone marrow reduces infarction size and ameliorates functional deficits in rat cerebral ischaemia models. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is angiogenic to impaired non-neural tissue. To test the hypothesis that PlGF contributes to the therapeutic benefits of MSC delivery in cerebral(More)
RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted) is one of the natural ligands for the chemokine receptor CCR5 and potently suppresses in vitro replication of the R5 strains of HIV-1, which use CCR5 as a coreceptor. Previous studies showed that peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD4(+) lymphocytes obtained from different individuals(More)