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(-)-Galanthamine (GAL), an alkaloid from the flower, the common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), shows anticholinesterase activity. This property has made GAL the target of research as to its effectiveness in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of GAL bound in the active site of Torpedo californica(More)
Organophosphate compounds (OP) are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) and can cause lethal poisoning in humans. Inhibition of AChEs by the OP soman involves phosphonylation of the catalytic serine, and subsequent dealkylation produces a form known as the "aged" enzyme. The nonaged form can be reactivated to a certain extent by nucleophiles,(More)
SGAP is an aminopeptidase present in the extracellular fluid of Streptomyces griseus cultures. It is a double-zinc enzyme with a strong preference for large hydrophobic amino-terminus residues. It is a monomeric (30 kDa) heat-stable enzyme, with a high and efficient catalytic activity modulated by calcium ions. The small size, high activity and heat(More)
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding acid beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase), resulting in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation. The only currently available orally administered treatment for Gaucher disease is N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (Zavesca, NB-DNJ), which partially inhibits GlcCer synthesis, thus reducing levels of GlcCer(More)
The X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase (SGAP) has been determined in its double zinc form to 1.75 A resolution, in its apo-enzyme from (zinc removed) to 2.1 A resolution, and as a mercury replaced derivative to 2.1 A resolution. The structure solution was achieved by single isomorphous replacement with phasing from(More)
Protein metal binding sites in the pre-bound (apo) state, and their rearrangements upon metal binding were not analyzed previously at a database scale. Such a study may provide valuable information for metal binding site prediction and design. A high resolution, nonredundant dataset of 210 metal binding sites was created, containing all available(More)
Streptomyces griseus excretes a small molecular mass (30 kDa) aminopeptidase that could be used for various biotechnological applications. This enzyme was isolated from an extracellular protease mixture of Streptomyces griseus (Pronase E. Sigma) and single crystals were obtained by the vapor diffusion method using polyethylene glycol 4000 as the(More)
Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase is a zinc metalloenzyme containing 2 mol zinc/mol protein, similar to the homologous enzyme Aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase. In addition, a unique Ca2+-binding site has been identified in the Streptomyces enzyme, which is absent in the Aeromonas enzyme. Binding of Ca2+ enhances stability of the Streptomyces enzyme(More)
Organophosphorus acid anhydride (OP) nerve agents are potent inhibitors which rapidly phosphonylate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and then may undergo an internal dealkylation reaction (called "aging") to produce an OP-enzyme conjugate that cannot be reactivated. To understand the basis for irreversible inhibition, we solved the structures of aged conjugates(More)
The X-ray crystal structures were solved for complexes with Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase of two bivalent tacrine derivative compounds in which the two tacrine rings were separated by 5- and 7-carbon spacers. The derivative with the 7-carbon spacer spans the length of the active-site gorge, making sandwich interactions with aromatic residues both(More)