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(-)-Galanthamine (GAL), an alkaloid from the flower, the common snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), shows anticholinesterase activity. This property has made GAL the target of research as to its effectiveness in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. We have solved the X-ray crystal structure of GAL bound in the active site of Torpedo californica(More)
The X-ray crystal structure of the enzyme Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase (SGAP) has been determined in its double zinc form to 1.75 A resolution, in its apo-enzyme from (zinc removed) to 2.1 A resolution, and as a mercury replaced derivative to 2.1 A resolution. The structure solution was achieved by single isomorphous replacement with phasing from(More)
Organophosphate compounds (OP) are potent inhibitors of acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) and can cause lethal poisoning in humans. Inhibition of AChEs by the OP soman involves phosphonylation of the catalytic serine, and subsequent dealkylation produces a form known as the "aged" enzyme. The nonaged form can be reactivated to a certain extent by nucleophiles,(More)
SGAP is an aminopeptidase present in the extracellular fluid of Streptomyces griseus cultures. It is a double-zinc enzyme with a strong preference for large hydrophobic amino-terminus residues. It is a monomeric (30 kDa) heat-stable enzyme, with a high and efficient catalytic activity modulated by calcium ions. The small size, high activity and heat(More)
Torpedo acetylcholinesterase is irreversibly inactivated by modifying a buried free cysteine, Cys231, with sulfhydryl reagents. The stability of the enzyme, as monitored by measuring the rate of inactivation, was reduced by mutating a leucine, Leu282, to a smaller amino acid residue. Leu282 is located within the "peripheral" anionic site, at the entrance to(More)
Streptomyces griseus aminopeptidase is a zinc metalloenzyme containing 2 mol zinc/mol protein, similar to the homologous enzyme Aeromonas proteolytica aminopeptidase. In addition, a unique Ca2+-binding site has been identified in the Streptomyces enzyme, which is absent in the Aeromonas enzyme. Binding of Ca2+ enhances stability of the Streptomyces enzyme(More)
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in the gene encoding acid beta-glucosidase (GlcCerase), resulting in glucosylceramide (GlcCer) accumulation. The only currently available orally administered treatment for Gaucher disease is N-butyl-deoxynojirimycin (Zavesca, NB-DNJ), which partially inhibits GlcCer synthesis, thus reducing levels of GlcCer(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) terminates nerve-impulse transmission at cholinergic synapses by rapid hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Substrate traffic in AChE involves at least two binding sites, the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, which have been suggested to be allosterically related and involved in substrate inhibition. Here, we(More)
Protein molecular adaptation to drastically shifting salinities was studied in dCA II, an alpha-type carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) from the exceptionally salt-tolerant unicellular green alga Dunaliella salina. The salt-inducible, extracellular dCA II is highly salt-tolerant and thus differs from its mesophilic homologs. The crystal structure of dCA II,(More)
Protein metal binding sites in the pre-bound (apo) state, and their rearrangements upon metal binding were not analyzed previously at a database scale. Such a study may provide valuable information for metal binding site prediction and design. A high resolution, nonredundant dataset of 210 metal binding sites was created, containing all available(More)