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This study investigated the association between the total choline (tCho) concentration and the clinical characteristics and biomarker status of breast cancer. Sixty-two patients with breast cancer, 1.5  cm or larger in size on MR images, were studied. The tCho concentration was correlated with the MRI features, contrast enhancement kinetics, clinical(More)
Triple-negative (TN) breast cancers were defined as those which tested negative for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2. TN breast cancers account for 12%– 26% of all types of breast cancers [1–5]. TN tumors were aggressive and were usually diagnosed at a later stage [5]. About 85% of TN phenotypic breast cancers are deemed to be(More)
With respect to treatment monitoring, conventional modalities such as physical examination, ultrasonography, and mammography are frequently used, but vary in reliability for measuring tumor’s therapeutic response [1, 2]. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to evaluate locally advanced breast cancer undergoing neo-adjuvant(More)
Structural changes in water molecules are related to physiological, anatomical and pathological properties of tissues. Near infrared (NIR) optical absorption methods are sensitive to water; however, detailed characterization of water in thick tissues is difficult to achieve because subtle spectral shifts can be obscured by multiple light scattering. In the(More)
Estrogen receptor (ER) status has been used in the clinical management of breast cancer both as a predictive factor for treatment and as a prognostic factor for survival [1]. Compared with ER-positive cancer, ER-negative cancer has a poorer clinical outcome and shorter median survival [2–3]. ER-negative cancer was more aggressive, with bigger tumor size,(More)
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