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Voltage-gated sodium channels are inhibited by local anesthetic drugs. This inhibition has complex voltage- and frequency-dependent properties, consistent with a model in which the sodium channel has low affinity for local anesthetics when it is in resting states and higher affinity when it is in open or inactivated states. Two residues, a phenylalanine(More)
Multiple, bilateral renal carcinomas are a frequent occurrence in von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. To elucidate the aetiological role of the VHL gene in human kidney tumorigenesis, localized and advanced tumours from 110 patients with sporadic renal carcinoma were analysed for VHL mutations and loss of heterozygosity (LOH). VHL mutations were identified in(More)
Brainstem gliomas (BSG) with intrinsic and extensive brainstem involvement continue to have a poor outlook despite current treatment approaches. Neuroimaging studies have aided in the differentiation of malignant brainstem tumors from more 'benign' subgroups. A Children's Cancer Group protocol evaluating outcome in children with BSG after treatment with(More)
The caudal-related homeobox gene Cdx-2/3 is a critical "master" control gene in embryogenesis. Mice heterozygous for a null mutation in Cdx-2/3 exhibit multiple malfunctions including tail abnormalities, stunted growth, a homeotic shift in vertebrae, and the development of multiple intestinal adenomatous polyps, indicating that Cdx-2/3 is(More)
PURPOSE From 1986 to 1992, "eight-drugs-in-one-day" (8-in-1) chemotherapy both before and after radiation therapy (XRT) (54 Gy tumor/36 Gy neuraxis) was compared with vincristine, lomustine (CCNU), and prednisone (VCP) after XRT in children with untreated, high-stage medulloblastoma (MB). PATIENTS AND METHODS Two hundred three eligible patients with an(More)
OBJECT One hundred seventy-two children with high-grade astrocytomas were treated by members of the Children's Cancer Group in a prospective randomized trial designed to evaluate the role of two chemotherapy regimens. Seventy-six percent of the patients (131 children) in whom a diagnosis of either anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma multiforme was(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells can affect the outcome of adaptive immune responses. NK cells, but not NK1.1+T cells, were found to participate in the development of myasthenia gravis (a T cell-dependent, B cell- and antibody-mediated autoimmune disease) in C57BL/6 mice. The requirement for NK cells was reflected by the lack of a type I helper T cell response and(More)
OBJECTIVE Hypothalamic obesity is a rare sequela of cranial insult, for which pathogenesis and treatment remain obscure. In rodents ventromedial hypothalamic damage causes hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinism, and insulin resistance. Reduction of insulin secretion in humans may attenuate weight gain. METHODS Eight children with intractable obesity after(More)
The promoter activities of the genes for cytochrome P450 2B1 (CYP2B1) and cytochrome P450 2C1 (CYP2C1) have been assayed by direct injection of promoter-luciferase chimeric genes into rat liver. Activities of minimal promoters for CYP2C1 and CYP2B1 were detectable in untreated animals but were not increased by treatment of the animals with phenobarbital.(More)
The study of the evolution and specificities of neutralizing antibodies during the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection may be important in the discovery of possible targets for vaccine design. In this study, we assessed the autologous and heterologous neutralization responses of 14 HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals, using(More)