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Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is elevated in many tumor types, but PGE(2)'s contributions to tumor growth are largely unknown. To investigate PGE(2)'s roles, the contributions of one of its receptors, EP2, were studied using the mouse skin initiation/promotion model. Initial studies indicated that protein kinase A (PKA), epidermal growth factor receptor(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are engineered graphene cylinders with numerous applications in engineering, electronics and medicine. However, CNTs cause inflammation and fibrosis in the rodent lung, suggesting a potential human health risk. We hypothesized that multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) induce two key inflammatory enzymes in macrophages, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)(More)
The cyclooxygenases, COX-1 and COX-2, are involved in cutaneous responses to both acute and chronic UV exposure. In the present study, wild-type (WT), COX-1-/- and COX-2-/- mice were used to determine the influence of the individual isoform on mouse skin responses to acute UVB treatment. Immunohistochemistry and Western analysis indicated that COX-2, and(More)
Previously we demonstrated that genetic deficiency of the cyclooxygenases (COX-1 or COX-2) altered keratinocyte differentiation in mouse skin [Tiano et. al. (2002) Cancer Res. 62, 3395-3401]. In this study, we show that topical application of SC-560 (a COX-1 selective inhibitor) or celecoxib (COX-2 selective) to TPA-treated wild-type skin caused fivefold(More)
Prostaglandin (PG) E2 manifest its biological activity by signalling via four G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) identified as EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4. GPCRs represent the most numerous class of receptors in the mammalian genome. Ligand binding to the GPCR results in the activation of the Gas subunit and disassociation of the Gas and Gbgsubunits. Early on(More)
We have previously reported that an increase in the production of immunosuppressive prostaglandin E2 by a QR tumour (QR-32) is accompanied by progressive growth of the tumour in syngeneic C57BL/6 mice. In order to determine what kinds of cell and factor(s) enable QR-32 cells to promote PGE2 production, we investigated the amounts of PGE2 in the supernatant(More)
Using a mouse skin tumor model, we reported previously that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) deficiency reduced papilloma formation. However, this model did not differentiate between the effects of systemic COX-2-deficiency and keratinocyte-specific COX-2 deficiency on tumor formation. To determine whether keratinocyte-specific COX-2 deficiency reduced papilloma(More)
The prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), EP2, plays important roles in mouse skin tumor development (Chun, K. S., Lao, H. C., Trempus, C. S., Okada, M., and Langenbach, R. (2009) Carcinogenesis 30, 1620-1627). Because keratinocyte proliferation is essential for skin tumor development, EP2-mediated signaling pathways that contribute(More)
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