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OBJECTIVES Plant lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins of non-immune origin, have recently been reported to induce programmed cell death (including apoptosis and autophagy) in many types of cancer cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small, non-coding endogenous RNAs, ~22 nucleotides (nt) in length, have been well characterized to play essential roles in regulation(More)
OBJECTIVES Caspases, a family of cysteine proteases with unique substrate specificities, contribute to apoptosis, whereas autophagy-related genes (ATGs) regulate cytoprotective autophagy or autophagic cell death in cancer. Accumulating evidence has recently revealed underlying mechanisms of apoptosis and autophagy; however, their intricate relationships(More)
BACKGROUND: Vitrification, the ice-free cryopreservation, develops rapidly and can become an ideal method for long-term preservation of cells and tissues. But up to now it is not practical for samples with large size because of the ultra-rapid cooling rate required. It has been reported that nanoparticles improve heat conductivity of solutions. MATERIALS(More)
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