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The crystal structure of mammalian protein phosphatase-1, complexed with the toxin microcystin and determined at 2.1 A resolution, reveals that it is a metalloenzyme unrelated in architecture to the tyrosine phosphatases. Two metal ions are positioned by a central beta-alpha-beta-alpha-beta scaffold at the active site, from which emanate three surface(More)
Phospho-DARPP-32 (where DARPP-32 is dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr 32,000), its homolog, phospho-inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2 are potent inhibitors (IC50 approximately 1 nM) of the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase-1 (PP1). Our previous studies have indicated that a region encompassing residues 6-11 (RKKIQF) and phospho-Thr-34, of(More)
In areas where the practise of betel quid chewing is widespread and the chewers also often smoke and drink alcohol, the relation between oral precancerous lesion and condition to the three habits is probably complex. To explore such association and their attributable effect on oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), a gender-age-matched(More)
The catalytic subunit of PP-1 (PP-1C) is potently inhibited (IC50, approximately 1 nM) by DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, M(r) 32,000), inhibitor-1, and inhibitor-2. The NH2-terminal 50 amino acid residues of DARPP-32 and inhibitor-1 are similar, and phosphorylation of a common threonine residue (Thr-34/Thr-35) is necessary for(More)
BACKGROUND Few studies have examined the association between psoriasis and glomerulonephritis (GN) as well as chronic kidney disease (CKD). OBJECTIVES To determine the risk of CKD in patients with psoriasis and evaluate the impact of the severity of psoriasis, comorbidities and concomitant drugs on the risk of GN and CKD in patients with psoriasis. (More)
Inhibitor-1 (I-1) and inhibitor-2 (I-2) selectively inhibit type 1 protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PP1). To define the molecular basis for PP1 inhibition by I-1 and I-2 charged-to-alanine substitutions in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae, PP1 catalytic subunit (GLC7), were analyzed. Two PP1 mutants, E53A/E55A and K165A/E166A/K167A, showed reduced(More)
BACKGROUND Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is capable of activating the cell death pathway, and has been implicated in killing transformed cells. However, TNF also activates survival signals, including NF-kappaB activation and the subsequent expression of anti-apoptotic genes, leading to protection against TNF toxicity. METHODS In this study, we show that,(More)
We consider the problem of synchronizing a general complex network by means of the on-off coupling strategy; in this case, the on-off time scale is varied from a very small to a very large value. In particular, we find that when the time scale is comparable to that of node dynamics, synchronization can also be achieved and greatly optimized for the upper(More)
Site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues of mammalian protein phosphatase 1 (PP-1) has been carried out to further define the mechanism of catalysis, activation by divalent cations, and inhibition by toxins and inhibitory proteins. Mutation of active site residues predicted to bind metals (N124D and H248N) resulted in a large loss of enzyme activity(More)