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The role of nocturnal sleep for normal immune regulation and its relation to circadian rhythm was examined in 10 men participating in two 51-h sessions. One session included two regular wake-sleep cycles; the other included a night of sustained wakefulness followed by a night of recovery sleep. Blood was collected every 3 h to determine PBMC counts,(More)
The electroencephalogram (EEG) was used because of its dimensional complexity to establish a differentiation of divergent versus convergent thought, considered fundamental modes of cortical processing. In 28 men, the EEG was recorded while solving tasks of divergent and convergent thinking and during mental relaxation. The EEG during divergent thought was(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been shown to mediate, in addition to immune reactions, various endocrine and central nervous components of the acute phase response. In this context, the present study aimed to specify the contributions of IL-6 to the regulation of pituitary-adrenal secretory activity and GH and TSH secretion, as(More)
The view of a general impairment of immune functions associated with aging has been challenged by recent studies including a more detailed evaluation of various cytokines and lymphocyte subsets. In the present human study, effects of age on the production of cytokines by T cells and monocytes were assessed, together with age-dependent changes in subset(More)
The present experiments were designed to compare the influences of delayed sleep onset and temporary slow wave sleep (SWS) deprivation on nocturnal GH and cortisol release in humans. Polysomnographic recordings and blood samples were obtained from 10 male subjects each participating on three experimental nights. On all nights the subjects went to bed at(More)
This study compared plasma concentrations of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol in young men (N = 10, mean age 24.4 years), young women (N = 10, mean age 25.4 years), old men (N = 8, mean age 81.6 years) and old women (N = 8, mean age 83.5 years) under basal resting conditions and after stimulation with either human corticotropin-releasing hormone(More)
The brain takes a primary position in the organism. We present the novel view that the brain gives priority to controlling its own adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration. It fulfils this tenet by orchestrating metabolism in the organism. The brain activates an energy-on-request system that directly couples cerebral supply with cerebral need. The request(More)
A recent study in humans, animal studies, and in vitro data have suggested that interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates the secretory activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. In a phase II study, one female and six male patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma received IL-6 to evaluate a possible antitumor effect of IL-6. This offered(More)
OBJECTIVE Antecedent hypoglycemia reduces hypoglycemic counterregulation and symptoms, thereby provoking the hypoglycemia unawareness syndrome. The effects of antecedent hypoglycemia on hypoglycemia-induced cognitive dysfunction are less well established. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS To determine whether antecedent hypoglycemia also reduces hypoglycemic(More)