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(1993). Weighted averaging partial least squares regression (WA-PLS): definition and comparison with other methods for species-environment calibration. ABSTRACT A multivariate calibration method is proposed that relates to correspondence analysis as partial least squares (PLS) relates to principal components analysis. The new method extends and improves the(More)
A computer program for reconstructing environmental variables (e.g. lake-water pH) from fossil assemblages (e.g. diatoms) by weighted averaging regression and calibration is described. The estimation of sample-specific errors of prediction by bootstrapping is outlined. The program runs on IBM-compatible personal computers.
Ecosystems change in response to factors such as climate variability, invasions, and wildfires. Most records used to assess such change are based on short-term ecological data or satellite imagery spanning only a few decades. In many instances it is impossible to disentangle natural variability from other, potentially significant trends in these records,(More)
Linear-and unimodal-based inference models for mean summer temperatures (partial least squares, weighted averaging, and weighted averaging partial least squares models) were applied to a high-resolution pollen and cladoceran stratigraphy from Gerzensee, Switzerland. The time-window of investigation included the Allerød, the Younger Dryas, and the Preboreal.(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Stratigraphic boundaries are ideally defined by distinct lithological, geochemical, and palaeobiological signatures , to which a chronological framework can be applied. We present a range of observations that illustrate how the Holocene–Anthropocene transition meets these criteria in its expression in sediments from remote arctic and(More)
In contrast with macroorganisms, whose geographical ranges are typically restricted, many microbial species appear to have cosmopolitan distributions. This observation has been explained as a consequence of ubiquitous dispersal caused by the enormous population sizes of microbial species. Recently, this "everything is everywhere, but, the environment(More)
Estimates of the radiocarbon age of seawater are required in correlations between marine and terrestrial records of the late Quaternary climate. We radiocarbon-dated marine shells and terrestrial plant remains deposited in two bays on Norway's west coast between 11,000 and 14,000 years ago, a time of large and abrupt climatic changes that included the(More)
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A modern diatom-pH calibration data-set consisting of surface-sediment diatom assemblages from 118 lakes and 530 taxa is presented. The AL:PE data-set is from high-altitude or high-latitude lakes in the Alps, (pH range = 4.5–8.0; DOC range = 0.2–3.2 mg l –1). In addition, 92 epilithon samples from 22 high-altitude or high-latitude lakes comprise an AL:PE(More)
BACKGROUND Although arctic lakes have responded sensitively to 20(th)-century climate change, it remains uncertain how these ecological transformations compare with alpine and montane-boreal counterparts over the same interval. Furthermore, it is unclear to what degree other forcings, including atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic reactive nitrogen (Nr),(More)