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Reflectivity degradation of grazing-incident extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mirror samples by EUV exposure was investigated in a commercial XTS 13-35 EUV source. The roughness of EUV exposed samples increases with an increase in exposure time due to the erosion of sample surface by ions and neutrals, or deposition of contaminant such as carbon on the sample(More)
Several methods have been developed for the preparation of graphene sheets (GSs), including chemical vapor deposition, [1] liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite, [2, 3] chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide, [4, 5] and electrochemical exfoliation. [6-16] Among them, the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite is one of the simplest and most(More)
We synthesized highly exfoliated graphite fluoride of approximate composition C2F by treating highly exfoliated graphite with ClF3. The formed material was found to be dispersible in solvents giving 1 to 5 layered fluorinated graphene. Dispersions successfully formed in polar organic solvents capable of establishing hydrogen bonds. The highest stability is(More)
Subsurface hook formation during initial solidification in the continuous casting mould degrades the quality of steel slabs owing to the associated entrapment of argon bubbles and non-metallic inclusions. To minimise hook depth and to improve slab quality, extensive plant experiments were performed and analysed to quantify the effect of casting parameters(More)
Tin Sn has the advantage of delivering higher conversion efficiency compared to other fuel materials e.g., Xe or Li in an extreme ultraviolet EUV source, a necessary component for the leading next generation lithography. However, the use of a condensable fuel in a lithography system leads to some additional challenges for maintaining a satisfactory lifetime(More)
Singleand few-layer graphene films are promising for immediate applications such as heat dissipation for electronic devices. One of the most urgent issues is to develop a scalable method for producing high quality graphene flakes. A highly efficient method to produce high quality graphene flakes based on electrochemical method has been developed.[1] This(More)
We compared bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone score (TBS) in postmenopausal women with a distal radius fracture older than 50 years with controls. Total hip BMD was significantly different, but TBS was not different between two groups, suggesting TBS does not reflect microarchitectural changes of the distal radius. The purpose of this study was(More)
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