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We previously reported that monoclonal antibodies to protein-disulfide isomerase (PDI) and other membrane-impermeant PDI inhibitors prevented HIV-1 infection. PDI is present at the surface of HIV-1 target cells and reduces disulfide bonds in a model peptide attached to the cell membrane. Here we show that soluble PDI cleaves disulfide bonds in recombinant(More)
Evidence had been provided that a disulfide-linked [125I]iodotyramine/poly(D-lysine) conjugate was reductively cleaved when bound nonspecifically to the surface of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and that this cleavage was abolished by membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl blockers. The same blockers were subsequently found to inhibit the cytotoxicity of(More)
The cell surface of mammalian cells is capable of reductively cleaving disulfide bonds of exogenous membrane-bound macromolecules (for instance, the interchain disulfide of diphtheria toxin), and inhibiting this process with membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagents prevents diphtheria toxin cytotoxicity. More recently it was found that the same membrane(More)
Whereas there is biological evidence that the reductive cleavage of disulfide bonds is critical for the activation of endocytosed macromolecules such as toxins, immunotoxins, and other drug carriers, virtually nothing is known about the specifics of this cleavage. To study this process, a model compound was synthesized in which a radioiodinated tyramine was(More)
Methotrexate and [(3)H]methotrexate were conjugated through a carbodiimide-catalyzed reaction to a 70,000 molecular weight poly(L-lysine) in molar ratios of approximately 13 to 1. The cellular uptake of labeled conjugate was far in excess of the uptake of free drug in cells that were either proficient or deficient in methotrexate transport. The conjugate(More)
Methotrexate (MTX) covalently linked to poly(L-lysine) [poly(Lys)] enters cells by endocytosis, is degraded in lysosomes and, upon liberation of small molecular methotrexate, is cytocidal to Chinese hamster cells in culture. This drug conjugate was used to select mutants resistant to MTX-poly(Lys), which were examined for defects in endocytosis. Two mutants(More)
Basic proteins and polyamino acids are taken up by mammalian cells at rates up to 3000 times greater than serum albumin. When given together with serum albumin they increase the albumin uptake by a factor that correlates with their own rate of uptake and can reach more than 50-fold. The lowest threshold of activity detected (10(-10)M)is comparable to the(More)
The carbodiimide-catalyzed conjugation of a 6700 molecular weight fragment of poly-L-lysine to radiolabeled human serum albumin or to horseradish peroxidase enhances the membrane transport of each protein into cultured mouse fibroblasts approximately 11- and 200-fold, respectively. At least 50% of the peroxidase activity remained after conjugation.(More)
Although it is accepted on the basis of biological and morphological evidence that mammalian cells will take up macromolecules, little is known about the kinetics, the specificity, and the functions of this uptake. With labeled proteins used as models, it is found that the transport proceeds at very low rates, requires little energy, and is markedly(More)