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Cellular actions of valproate (VPA) were studied using intracellular recordings of identified neuronal individuals in the buccal ganglia of Helix pomatia. Under nonepileptic conditions, VPA induced (a) a hyperpolarization, (b) slight changes in action potentials (AP), and (c) an increase in membrane resistance. Under epileptic conditions (i.e., during(More)
The effects of valproate sodium (VPA) on potassium currents were tested in identified neurons of the snail Helix pomatia. VPA was extracellularly and intracellularly applied. VPA (i) had no effects on the current-voltage relation of the early potassium outward current (IA), (ii) shifted the steady state inactivation function of IA to more positive(More)
The diffusion of valproate (VPA) and trans-2-en-valproate were studied in agar gel and in the cerebral cortex of the rat using pressure microejection and VPA-selective microelectrodes. From the agar measurements a free diffusion coefficient for VPA of 6.52 x 10(-6) cm2.s-1 and for trans-2-en-VPA of 5.25 x 10(-6) cm2.s-1 for 37 degrees C was determined. The(More)
High concentrations of valproate (VPA; greater than 20 mM) depolarized identified neuronal individuals in the buccal ganglia of Helix pomatia and transiently induced paroxysmal depolarization shifts (PDS). Threshold concentration of VPA for the induction of PDS was decreased (a) by increased seizure susceptibility, (b) by increased concentrations of(More)
Sir: Sepsis may be associated with downregulation of monocyte HLA-DR expression and a reduced capacity in whole blood to produce tumor necrosis factor-a (TNFa) [1]. This phenomenon has been called aimmunoparalysiso [2]. Interferon gamma (IFNg) may restore HLA-DR expression on monocytes [4] and reestablish monocyte TNFa production in immunoparalysis [1]. We(More)