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A new bioreactor, in which a series of air-lift reactors with an internal loop is incorporated into one vessel, is introduced. With this multiple air-lift loop reactor (MAL) and approximation of an aerated plug-flow fermentor is strived for. Mixing, liquid velocity, and gas hold-up were measured as a function of the gas flow rate in this new internal-loop(More)
In the serial gray box modeling strategy, generally available knowledge, represented in the macroscopic balance, is combined naturally with neural networks, which are powerful and convenient tools to model the inaccurately known terms in the macroscopic balance. This article shows, for a typical biochemical conversion, that in the serial gray box modeling(More)
Black-box modeling techniques based on artificial neural networks are opening new horizons for modeling and controlling nonlinear processes in biotechnology and chemical process industries. The link between dynamic process models and actual process control is provided by the concept of model based control (MBC), e.g. Internal Model Control (IMC) or Model(More)
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