H. J. Gross

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The viroid of the potato spindle tuber disease (PSTV) is a covalently closed ring of 359 ribonucleotides. As a result of intramolecular base pairing, a serial arrangement of double-helical sections and internal loops form a unique rod-like secondary structure. PSTV is the first pathogen of a eukaryotic organism for which the complete molecular structure has(More)
Although the numerical abilities of many vertebrate species have been investigated in the scientific literature, there are few convincing accounts of invertebrate numerical competence. Honeybees, Apis mellifera, by virtue of their other impressive cognitive feats, are a prime candidate for investigations of this nature. We therefore used the(More)
Extracts of wheat germ contain an RNA ligase activity that catalyses the conversation of linear polyribonucleotides into covalently closed circles. The newly formed 3',5'-phosphodiester bridge is resistant to alkali and a number of ribonucleases. This unusual stability is due to the presence of a phosphoryl group esterified to the 2'-position of the(More)
Cleavage of phosphodiester bonds by small ribonuclease mimics within different bulge-loops of RNA was investigated. Bulge-loops of different size (1-7 nt) and sequence composition were formed in a 3' terminal fragment of influenza virus M2 RNA (96 nt) by hybridization of complementary oligodeoxynucleotides. Small bulges (up to 4 nt) were readily formed upon(More)
Reverse transcription of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is primed by tRNA(Lys3), which forms an 18 base pair RNA homoduplex with its 3' terminus and the primer binding site (PBS) of the viral genome. Using an in vitro system mimicking initiation of minus strand DNA synthesis, we analyzed the mechanism by which HIV-1 reverse transcriptase(More)
The genes coding for the 5S rRNA and another stable RNA, termed 7S RNA, in Halobacterium halobium were isolated from a genomic library of this archaebacterium and their nucleotide sequences determined. Both genes are colinear with their transcripts (5S rRNA and 7S RNA), but 5S rRNA and possibly also 7S RNA isolated from other halobacteria carry additional(More)
In the first decade of the 20th century, a horse named Hans drew worldwide attention in Berlin as the first and most famous "speaking" and thinking animal. Hans solved calculations by tapping numbers or letters with his hoof in order to answer questions. Later on, it turned out that the horse was able to give the correct answer by reading the microscopic(More)
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