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The present study proposes a simple and reproducible method to classify the morphology of the suprascapular notch (SSN), on the basis of specific geometrical parameters that clearly distinguish one type from another. Four hundred twenty-three dried scapulas from the Department of Anatomy in the University of Cologne, Germany, were examined. Five types of(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and time-course of apoptosis in soleus skeletal muscle during the first 48 hours of unloading. Fifty Charles River mice were randomly divided into five groups (n=10 each) according to the time of hindlimb suspension (HS). Mice were suspended for 0 (Control), 6 (6HS), 12 (12HS), 24 (24HS), and 48(More)
Muscle contraction acutely increases glucose transport in both healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals. Since glucose uptake during muscle contraction has been observed in the absence of insulin, the existence of an insulin-independent pathway has been suggested to explain this phenomenon. However, the exact mechanism behind the translocation of GLUT4(More)
The effects of two methods of electrical stimulation on maximum isometric force, calf girth, and skinfold thickness of stimulated and nonstimulated (contralateral) legs were studied. Thirty-six male volunteers, divided into three groups, participated in the experiment. Groups I and II were subjected to the procedure of electrical stimulation of m. triceps(More)
Male physical education students were subjected to electrical stimulation for a period of 21 days. The stimulation was performed with alternating currents of rectangular wave form. Group I was stimulated with a frequency of 50 Hz, group II with a frequency of 2000 Hz. Before and after the experimental period, biopsies were taken from the m. gastrocnemius.(More)
Signs of overuse after intense muscular exertion are well described in adults, while little research has been conducted in children. The aim of the study was to investigate some indirect markers of muscle damage in 13 years old boys following two different protocols of one-leg stepping exercise to exhaustion. This stepping exercise was performed by two(More)
Investigations on the mechanisms capable of influencing heart mitochondrial function constitute a central contribution to the understanding of cardiac bioenergetics. In contrast to the conventional idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mostly act as a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, in low physiological concentrations they can(More)
The influence of an endurance training on the phagocytic activity of macrophages from tumor bearing mice was studied. Female NMRI mice were trained on a treadmill. The training period differed from 3 to 6 weeks for different experimental groups and was performed either before or after tumor inoculation, or both. Either L-1210 or S-180 tumor cells were(More)
The chronic and immediate post-exercise responses in the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems have been shown to be variable and reflect differing adaptations with ageing and responses to exercise protocols. This study investigated the effects of acute and exhaustive exercise on the amplitude and duration of hemostatic and fibrinolytic responses in young(More)