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The present study proposes a simple and reproducible method to classify the morphology of the suprascapular notch (SSN), on the basis of specific geometrical parameters that clearly distinguish one type from another. Four hundred twenty-three dried scapulas from the Department of Anatomy in the University of Cologne, Germany, were examined. Five types of(More)
In exercise-induced muscle damage, oxidative stress derived from the liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is assumed to be of etiological importance. Xanthine oxidase (XO) located in capillary endothelium is one of the possible sources for ROS, mainly investigated so far under conditions of ischemia/reperfusion. XO can be inhibited by allopurinol. To(More)
Investigations on the mechanisms capable of influencing heart mitochondrial function constitute a central contribution to the understanding of cardiac bioenergetics. In contrast to the conventional idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mostly act as a trigger for oxidative damage of biological structures, in low physiological concentrations they can(More)
The effects of two methods of electrical stimulation on maximum isometric force, calf girth, and skinfold thickness of stimulated and nonstimulated (contralateral) legs were studied. Thirty-six male volunteers, divided into three groups, participated in the experiment. Groups I and II were subjected to the procedure of electrical stimulation of m. triceps(More)
Signs of overuse after intense muscular exertion are well described in adults, while little research has been conducted in children. The aim of the study was to investigate some indirect markers of muscle damage in 13 years old boys following two different protocols of one-leg stepping exercise to exhaustion. This stepping exercise was performed by two(More)
Muscle contraction acutely increases glucose transport in both healthy and type 2 diabetic individuals. Since glucose uptake during muscle contraction has been observed in the absence of insulin, the existence of an insulin-independent pathway has been suggested to explain this phenomenon. However, the exact mechanism behind the translocation of GLUT4(More)
Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle of patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament surgery under conditions of tourniquet-induced ischaemia were examined under the electron microscope at different periods of time up to 90 min of ischaemia. The severity of the alterations in ultrastructure appeared to depend on the period of ischaemia.(More)
Muscular atrophy regularly occurs as a consequence of immobilisation or disuse after sports injuries. Several experimental models deal with muscle atrophy and are suitable for investigations of the underlying mechanisms of muscle atrophy. Strength loss is the most evident response to atrophy. Muscle strength decreases most dramatically during the first week(More)
In subjects who had undergone monopedal bicycle ergometer work for 30 min 4 days a week for 6 weeks under aerobic conditions, biopsies from the M. vastus lateralis were studied in the light and electron microscope. In some cases very small myofibers with central nuclei were found. At the ultrastructural level, these fibers turned out to be myotubes. The(More)
Male physical education students were subjected to electrical stimulation for a period of 21 days. The stimulation was performed with alternating currents of rectangular wave form. Group I was stimulated with a frequency of 50 Hz, group II with a frequency of 2000 Hz. Before and after the experimental period, biopsies were taken from the m. gastrocnemius.(More)