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Ligand-specific immunosuppression requires an understanding of the parameters that control peripheral T cell tolerance. T cell receptor (TcR) transgenic mice offer a clear advantage for studying post-thymic tolerance mechanisms in vivo that are operational in a monoclonal T cell population with preselected antigen specificity. Yet it is unclear whether the(More)
Treatment of animals with superantigens results in profound immunological changes. A major fraction of all peripheral T cells becomes activated in vivo. Subsequently, successive waves of cytokines are produced with TNF playing a central pathophysiologic role. In addition, if the liver is damaged by an as yet poor defined mechanism the consequences of the(More)
In this work we present variations on in-hexapole infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) for the characterization of modified oligonucleotides using an ESI-FTICR spectrometer. We demonstrate that IRMPD in the external ion reservoir provides a comprehensive series of fragments allowing thorough characterization of a wide range of oligonucleotides(More)
The response profile of staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB)-primed murine V beta 8+ CD4+ and V beta 8+ CD8+ T cells was analysed upon rechallenge in vitro. While in vitro responses to secondary stimulation with SEB were reduced to background levels, the in vivo reactivity after rechallenge with SEB was retained, in that SEB-primed mice succumbed to lethal(More)
Clonal deletion and/or inactivation establishes tolerance to self antigens. Endogenous and exogenous (bacterial) superantigens, like the staphylococcal enterotoxins, induce ligand-specific clonal anergy in vivo and thus are believed to mirror aspects of post-thymic tolerance mechanisms in mature peripheral T cells. Here we analyzed the level of anergy of(More)
Amplification of DNA by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become an efficient tool in the study of gene expression. We describe the use of HPLC anion exchange chromatography to quantitate PCR products amplified from cDNA. The technique circumvents the use of both radioactivity and gel electrophoresis. We show that the method permits accurate(More)