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For plants, the sensing of light in the environment is as important as vision is for animals. Fluctuations in light can be crucial to competition and survival. One way plants sense light is through the phytochromes, a small family of diverse photochromic protein photoreceptors whose origins have been traced to the photosynthetic prokaryotes. During their(More)
Understanding the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on bees is vital because of reported declines in bee diversity and distribution and the crucial role bees have as pollinators in ecosystems and agriculture. Neonicotinoids are suspected to pose an unacceptable risk to bees, partly because of their systemic uptake in plants, and the European Union has(More)
In many bird species, floaters are present on the breeding grounds in one or more years before they breed. There is increasing evidence that they have specific home ranges in which they search for information about current and future breeding opportunities. We investigated the role of prospecting in a migratory European starling (Sturnus vulgaris)(More)
A resolution model for evolutionary conflicts of interest is proposed. We assume that two conflicting parties originally have different evolutionarily stable strategies (ESS) with respect to a continuous variable, but that only one value of the variable is simultaneously possible. Individuals from the two parties meet in antagonistic encounters. The side(More)
Short antigenic peptides bound in the groove of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules enable T cells to detect intracellular pathogens. It has been assumed that structural features of the class I molecule alone select which peptides are bound. It is now demonstrated that a complex polymorphism in one of the major histocompatibility(More)
There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost-effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop(More)
Competitive interactions between plants determine the success of individuals and species. In developing forests, competition for light is the predominant factor. Shade tolerators acclimate photosynthetically to low light and are capable of long-term survival under the shade cast by others, whereas shade avoiders rapidly dominate gaps but are overtaken in(More)
1. Environmental changes may not always result in rapid changes in species distributions, abundances or diversity. In order to estimate the effects of, for example, land-use changes caused by agri-environment schemes (AES) on biodiversity and ecosystem services, information on the time-lag between the application of the scheme and the responses of organisms(More)
Pollination of insect pollinated crops has been found to be correlated to pollinator abundance and diversity. Since organic farming has the potential to mitigate negative effects of agricultural intensification on biodiversity, it may also benefit crop pollination, but direct evidence of this is scant. We evaluated the effect of organic farming on(More)