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We describe a new reverse-genetics system that allows one to efficiently generate influenza A viruses entirely from cloned cDNAs. Human embryonic kidney cells (293T) were transfected with eight plasmids, each encoding a viral RNA of the A/WSN/33 (H1N1) or A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus, flanked by the human RNA polymerase I promoter and the mouse RNA polymerase I(More)
Ebola virus causes hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates, resulting in mortality rates of up to 90%. Studies of this virus have been hampered by its extraordinary pathogenicity, which requires biosafety level 4 containment. To circumvent this problem, we developed a novel complementation system for functional analysis of Ebola virus(More)
(1-->3)-beta-D-glucan is a characteristic fungal cell-wall constituent. To assess the clinical usefulness of this glucan in screening for invasive fungal infection or fungal febrile episodes, we measured the plasma concentration at the time of routine blood culture in 202 febrile episodes by means of factor G, a horseshoe-crab coagulation enzyme that is(More)
We found that vimentin, the most widely expressed intermediate filament protein, served as an excellent substrate for Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase) and that vimentin phosphorylated by Rho-kinase lost its ability to form filaments in vitro. Two amino-terminal sites on vimentin, Ser38 and Ser71, were identified as the major phosphorylation sites for(More)
An H5N1 avian influenza A virus was transmitted to humans in Hong Kong in 1997. Although the virus causes systemic infection and is highly lethal in chickens because of the susceptibility of the hemagglutinin to furin and PC6 proteases, it is not known whether it also causes systemic infection in humans. The clinical outcomes of infection in Hong Kong(More)
BACKGROUND Intraductal ultrasonography is clinically useful in assessing various pancreatobiliary diseases. This study was carried out to evaluate the usefulness of intraductal ultrasonography in diagnosing tumor extension of cancer of the papilla of Vater. METHODS Thirty-two patients with cancer underwent intraductal ultrasonography. According to the(More)
BACKGROUND Vimentin, which is one of the intermediate filaments, is the major cytoskeletal component in developing neurones or neuroblastoma cells. Rho-associated kinase (Rho-kinase), is rich in neurones and is found downstream of Rho. It is involved in the agonist-induced neurite retraction of neuronal cells, and phosphorylates vimentin at Ser-38 and(More)
We investigated the production of inflammatory cytokines derived from cultured T cells of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in 14 patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM). The production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, was significantly increased(More)
In human, there are four AMP deaminase (AMP aminohydrolase, EC 3.5.4.6) isozymes: E1, E2, M and L. Chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunological studies showed the existence of isozymes E1 and E2 in erythrocytes, isozyme M in muscle and isozyme L in liver and brain. The tissues such as heart, kidney and spleen contained isozymes E1, E2 and L. Isozymes(More)