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AIMS  To develop a new instrument of great versatility for recovering micro-organisms from all types of food samples and to compare the effects with existing sample preparation methods. METHODS AND RESULTS  To detach micro-organisms from large-size unbroken food samples such as apples, carrots, potatoes and tomatoes without preprocessing, the Spindle(More)
AIMS The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of continuous ohmic heating for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes in orange juice and tomato juice. METHODS AND RESULTS Orange juice and tomato juice were treated with electric field strengths in the range of 25-40 V cm(-1) for different(More)
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