Learn More
OBJECTIVE To identify symptoms that change in prevalence and severity during midlife and evaluate their relationships to menopausal status, hormonal levels, and other factors. METHODS In a longitudinal, population-based study of 438 Australian-born women observed for 7 years with an 89% retention rate, 172 advanced from premenopause to perimenopause or(More)
In a study of the endocrinology of the perimenopausal years, levels of serum FSH, estradiol (E2), immunoreactive inhibin (INH), testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured in a population-based sample of 380 women (mean age, 49.4 yr; range, 45.6-56.9 yr). Subjects were divided into women who reported continuing regular menstrual cycles(More)
OBJECTIVE To describe the sources, production rates, circulating concentrations, and regulatory mechanisms of the major androgen precursors and androgens in women. DESIGN Review of the major published literature. RESULT(S) Quantitatively, women secrete greater amounts of androgen than of estrogen. The major circulating steroids generally classified as(More)
The menopause, defined as the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity, marks the end of natural female reproductive life. It is preceded by a period of menstrual cycle irregularity, the menopausal transition, which usually begins in the mid-40s and is conventionally divided into early and late phases. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Our objective was to provide a scholarly review of the published literature on menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT), make scientifically valid assessments of the available data, and grade the level of evidence available for each clinically important endpoint. PARTICIPANTS IN DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENTIFIC STATEMENT: The 12-member Scientific Statement Task(More)
Two hundred and twenty-four women (74 pre-, 90 peri-, 60 post-menopausal), aged 46–59 years, from a population-based cohort participated in a longitudinal study of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck and the time between bone scans was on average 25 (range 14–41) months.(More)
We measured lunbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD); urine markers of bone resorption; serum markers of bone formation; and serum gonadotrophin, estradiol and inhibin concentrations in a population-based cohort of 281 women aged 45-57 yr. Women were classified into pre-, peri-, and postmenopausal groups, depending on menstrual bleeding(More)
The menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity. It is heralded by the menopausal transition, a period when the endocrine, biological, and clinical features of approaching menopause begin. A common initial marker is the onset of menstrual irregularity. The biology underlying the transition to(More)
CONTEXT Accumulating evidence suggests that estrogens may have therapeutic effects in severe mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, via neuromodulatory and neuroprotective activity. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy of adjunctive transdermal estradiol with that of adjunctive placebo in the treatment of acute psychotic symptoms. DESIGN Randomized,(More)
OBJECTIVES To describe Australian-born women's experience of symptoms during the natural menopause transition and the relative contribution of menopausal and health status, social factors and lifestyle behaviours. DESIGN A community based cross-sectional survey by telephone interview was carried out on a randomly derived sample of Melbourne women. (More)